Impacts of water availability on macronutrients in fruit and leaves of conilon coffee
Biologia e tabela de vida de Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae sobre Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao E- mail: [email protected]; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao .. Because of resistance to pesticides, resurgence of date palm spider mite. E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] ordendelsantosepulcro.info At each sampling date, five plants per treatment were picked out, by collecting one reprodutivo do cafeeiro conilon, com maior acúmulo de nutrientes nos tecidos dessas plantas. .. Biologia Plantarum, v, p, Correspondence: a [email protected], b [email protected] ordendelsantosepulcro.info, . of the dates of pupation, emergence of imagoes, and sexual .. tecido animal para uso forense. Revista Brasileira de Biologia.
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Because of the reduced fruit size, branches collected up to 66 days after flowering exhibited peduncles, which were placed together with the fruitlet-phase fruit. Furthemore, 56 leaves were collected per treatment from the third and fourth nodes of the plagiotropic branches located in the upper middle third of the plants. However, these leaf collections were extended until ca. The N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations in fruit and leaves were quantified in triplicate, and followed well established methods Ramalho et al.
The N concentration in plant tissues was determined by the Kjeldahl method hot acid digestion. For P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, a nitro-perchloric digestion was used; and P and S were determined by spectrophotometry in the ultraviolet-visible, K was determined by flame photometry, and Ca and Mg, by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption.
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Fruit nutrient accumulation was calculated based on the dry weight, the number of fruit per branch, and the fruit nutrient concentrations. A regression analysis was performed for fruit nutrient accumulation. Graphs were plotted using the means and standard errors in SigmaPlot Results and Discussion The fitted curves for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S accumulation in fruit displayed similar sigmoid patterns, irrespectively of the irrigation treatment, on both crop seasons, although with different global accumulated contents Figures 23and 4.
Fruit macronutrient accumulation was considerably higher in the second than in the first crop season under both water regimes Figures 234. This was likely associated with the greater number of fruit per node observed during the first crop season, causing higher competition for minerals, with reduced fruit growth and dry weight, causing smaller grain size, as compared with the second crop season. Accumulation of nitrogen A and phosphorus B in fruit of irrigated and nonirrigated conilon coffee Coffea canephora plants, from flowering to fruit ripening, in two consecutive crop seasons Year 1 - N 1, P 1; Year 2 - N 2, P 2in the Atlantic region of Bahia, Brazil.
Accumulation of potassium A and calcium B in fruit of irrigated and nonirrigated conilon coffee Coffea canephora plants, from flowering to fruit ripening, in two consecutive crop seasons Year 1 - K 1, Ca 1; Year 2 - K 2; Ca 2in the Atlantic region of Bahia, Brazil. Accumulation of magnesium A and sulphur B in fruit of irrigated and nonirrigated conilon coffee Coffea canephora plants, from flowering to fruit ripening, in two consecutive crop seasons Year 1 - Mg 1, S 1; Year 2 - Mg 2, S 2in the Atlantic region of Bahia, Brazil.
All nutrients showed an initial phase of low-accumulation rates, followed by a phase with the highest accumulation rates, and a final phase with lower rates at the end of fruit formation maturation. However, it should be noted that the last phase was less clear for Ca, Mg, and S, under nonirrigated conditions in the 1st year.
As to water availability conditions, in the two years, a higher-fruit accumulation was observed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S contents in irrigated plants than in nonirrigated ones Figures 23and 4. In the first three evaluations performed between 10 and 75 days after flowering DAFthe fruit nutrient accumulation rate was very low, and there were no significant differences between water treatments.
During this period, fruit were in the fruitlet phase, characterized by low growth and dry weight accumulation, with lower-nutrient accumulation in tissues Dubberstein et al. However, the rates of nutrient accumulation in the fruit can also occur at earlier stages, beginning 48 days after flowering, irrespectively of the length of the maturation cycle Partelli et al. The highest fruit-nutrient accumulation rates were observed from to DAF, on average, in the two years Figures 23and 4.
During this period, local climate is characterized by irregular rainfall distribution, increased air temperatures, high irradiance, and water deficits, especially during the summer season Figure 1.
These findings reflect the importance of N in fruit development, showing the benefits of N fertilization of coffee plants during their reproductive phase. Nitrogen accumulation rates in fruit increased between ca. In the present study, the highest N accumulation occurred between the fifth and penultimate collections, a period that includes these phenological stages Figure 2 A. Similar results were found by Partelli et al.
Similarly to N, the highest P accumulation rates in fruit were observed between ca. At the end of the fruit ripening phase, K accumulated as much as N in the second year, and showed the second highest-accumulation level in the first year Figure 3 A. Differences among water conditions were observed only in the first year, when irrigated plants showed significantly higher-K accumulation in fruit.
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Moreover, in partial contrast to N and P, the translocation of K to Arabica coffee fruits occurred at high rates at fruit ripening, as this mineral is required for the activation of several enzymes that are essential for the synthesis of organic compounds, which are synthesized during fruit ripening Laviola et al. However, this pattern was not observed in the present study, as the highest-K accumulation was observed as beginning at DAF and increasing until the fruit ripening phase at DAF Figure 3 Athus, there is probably a significant difference for K accumulation among conilon and Arabica coffee.
The highest sulphur accumulation rates occurred also in the first phases of the fruiting cycle of conilon coffee plants Figure 4 Bsimilarly to what was reported for conilon coffee C. However, Laviola et al. Fruit macronutrient concentrations varied greatly during the experimental period. For this reason, it was not possible to establish trend models Figure 5. Nitrogen was the macronutrient exhibiting the highest concentration in fruit, followed by K and Ca, in both crop seasons, indicating the importance of these nutrients during fruiting in conilon coffee plants.
The N, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentration patterns in fruit, along the year, were similar for irrigated and nonirrigated conilon coffee plants, with higher concentrations occurring in the initial phase of fruit development Figure 5.
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The highest-fruit concentrations of these nutrients fruitlet phase, due to the small increase in fruit dry matter. Still, the plants subjected to water shortage showed a tendency to lower the minerals concentration in some parts of the year, which is possibly related to a lower translocation through the transpiration flow due to a likely higher-stomatal closure.
Following the initial stage, N, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations decreased between and DAF, showing some fluctuations, and reached the lowest values during fruit ripening Figure 5. These decreases are related to a dilution effect of fruit nutrient contents because of an increase in fruit dry matter.
However, K showed a distinct accumulation trend. The concentrations in fruit started low and greatly increased until reaching their highest values at DAF, in the first crop season, and at DAF, in the second crop season Figure 5 C.
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C of K in fruit then began to decrease, showing the lowest values close to harvest. Concentrations of K in fruit were higher in the second than in the first crop season, especially starting at DAF Figure 5 C.
Similarly to the fruit-nutrient concentrations, trend lines could not be established for leaf-macronutrient concentrations due to their fluctuations during the experimental period, for both studied crop seasons Figure 6.
These fluctuations of leaf concentrations may have been influenced by the nutritional demands during fruit development, which tended to be higher during fruit expansion and grain filling Partelli et al. Nitrogen was the nutrient found at the highest concentrations in the leaves, followed by Ca, and K Figure 6.
The N and P concentrations in leaves showed close patterns, which were similar for both the irrigated and nonirrigated plants, with the highest concentrations in fruit in the fruitlet phase Figure 6when low translocation from leaves to fruit occurred.
Along fruit development, N and P concentrations in leaves markedly decreased because of the high translocation of these nutrients into fruit, as also found in C.