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Artistic training in early childhood education it is based on plastic experimentation colours, textures, materials and on creating standardised projects in which freedom of expression and individual creativity is not yet present.
When we limit our practices to this sort of methodology only we do not develop all the possibilities that arts teaching philosophies can offer us. The most known or common methods of arts education can be understood as follows: Our main objective is to present a framework that can support the adoption of the atelier of Reggio Emilia as a key element to develop critical thinking since early childhood from pre-school, by supporting teachers to develop strategies that can lead to establish an arts related pedagogical model.
Ergo, for us is key —via this research— to be able to present a model that can be used at schools and also for teacher training. Our research is focused on understanding if by adopting the Reggio Emilia approaches and model it is possible to support an effective method to develop creative thinking skills for the early childhood, to achieve this, we aim to conceptualise the benefits and challenges of using the aforementioned pedagogical approach in the curricular development of arts teaching This paper conceptualises and defines the key approaches and methods for arts education, presenting a scope to understand different methodologies towards developing creative thinking through arts.
Through rigorously analysing the literature we aim to systematise a pedagogical approach towards developing a conceptual framework to support the implementation of Reggio Emilia methodologies at pre-school and primary school levels, leading towards good practices in arts teaching and learning.
This conceptual framework can be useful in the arts education classrooms, as it establishes parameters that can have an impact on students, teachers and in the methodology in general. The trends relating to arts education in schools, have been modified, extended, corrected and reinvented. The concept of Bauhaus, which is related to the field of design and, at the school framework, seeks to help students to become aware of a variety of considerations of the economic, structural and aesthetic aspects in the design process, which has to be the result of a personal creative expression.
One of the pioneers in analysing visual thinking is Rudolph Arnheim, who was influenced by the Gestalt and Hermeneutics movements, in his book Visual Thinking he suggests that there are other ways of learning based on the senses, such as through vision.
Therefore, following this line of thought we can find Elliot W.
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Eisner and Howard Gardner amongst other theorists, both of whom developed their own approaches with regards to arts and creativity. Eisner considers artistic thinking as a dynamic, relational, constructive and poetic construct that provides a particular way of conceiving reality.
He describes an active subject that participates in symbolic interpretations. Gardnersuggests that the artistic abilities are mind activities that involve the use and transformation of symbols and, due to its complexity, it is necessary to train teachers because they have to design and evaluate the experiences of their students.
He argues that art is the product of spontaneity, creativity and individual talent, which have as a starting point aesthetical sensibility. On the same path, Lowenfeld publishes the book Creative and Mental Growth where he describes the characteristics of the artistic productions of children at each stage as: To ensure that the review was systematic, we followed the following EPPI-Centre recommendations: We also carried out handsearching on key paper references and asked experts in the field.
We categorised the remaining 24 into study cases and theoretical papers. From the case studies we obtained examples of good practices and from the theoretical papers we obtained philosophical and theoretical analysis, which allowed us to structure the conceptual framework of this study. Also, we outlined the methodology and results from each included study.
We were able to make a systematic description according to the criteria. Quality and relevance appraisal: Using a technique based on the principles of peer review, papers were assessed and scored in regards to their quality and relevance for this study, ensuring that the methods, concepts and definitions were evidenced in an appropriate manner to ensure that the sources used in this research were academically relevant.
Once these connections were established, a set of relevant concepts were drawn and structured towards designing a consistent approach to the core elements of the philosophy of Reggio Emilia. The literature reviewed relates to the philosophy of Reggio Emilia and adjacent theories.
During the research, the articles have been classified according to key three areas: The philosophy of Reggio Emilia schools. What can educators and researchers learn from the Reggio Emilia approach.
How can we apply the Reggio philosophy within the classroom. Therefore, it is possible to assume that the model used to teach art in schools may inhibit the full potential of the creative process of children by restricting them Gonzalez, ; Bartel, On the other hand and in relation to the previously mentioned models, Reggio Emilia can help the children to represent and to communicate their thinking throughout different means and symbolic systems.
The language used by the children are the sources that generate knowledge, amongst these, art plays an important role. Several authors like GardnerMalaguzzi and Eisnerwho study the child as an artist, refer to creativity without limits or restrictions, which children have during the pre-school.
Therefore, everything children cannot experience or create freely during this period, ,will not be recoverable.
The schools associated with the Reggio Emilia philosophy, propose a participatory and democratic educational system, that emphasises research and experimentation. The cultural project of its founder, the pedagogue Loris Malaguzzi, has the child as the main priority and not the subject to teach therefore, the learning process is key, and not just the final product. For this reason it is necessary for both teachers and learners to observe, document and discuss.
Malaguzzi proposed that art teaching needs to become an identity trademark for two fundamental reasons towards developing learning during early childhood. The creation of the atelier where the central figure is the person called an atelierista, who is in charge of the atelier.
The role of the atelierista is to generate situations that promote experimentation and research so they can be conducted. And also, to accompany the children on finding their discoveries. Giving them also opportunities to experience and to be experienced. In Reggio Emilia, the key interests are framed towards stress on the importance of the creativity at metaphorical, symbolical level, aiming at developing research projects amongst the students.
Also, at Reggio Emilia schools, they work around the way we see and how we think about the world and about ourselves in the world. As creativity can have an effect on the different ways of expressing language among the children. The research projects start from the interest of children and might be based on their experiences, exploration, or from the questions they may have about the world that surrounds them.
Throughout the projects, children develop cognitive, social and language skills. The people of a village in Reggio Emilia decided to build and manage a school for the children of the village, which was funded from military equipment abandoned by the Germans a tank, a truck and several horses. A school was born from the desire and enthusiasm of the residents to make changes. Other schools on the periphery followed the project later.
All were created and self-managed by the villagers. Loris Malaguzzi finally joined the project in and created the first municipal school. The school is considered a unitary living organism, a place of coexistence to exchange relationships between adults and children. A place where students can think, discuss and learn how to work by trying to reconcile what they know and what they do not know, their difficulties, failures, expectations, success, the questions and problems that are always present when they have to choose Malaguzzi, Sassalos and Bennett have self-reflected about their own methodologies in the classroom.
Other authors like Kim and Darling define Reggio Emilia by describing a project about Monet that showcases how children develop their understanding throughout conversations and discussions between them and the teachers, co-constructing their knowledge.
According to Lohthe Reggio Emilia approach is characterised by six key aspects that define and differentiate it: The environment as third teacher; 3. The multiple languages of the children; 4.
The teacher as researcher and 6. The home-school relationships Loh, In turn, Kim and Darling think that these six aspects should be complemented with another three main themes which are: The image of the child; 2.
The negotiated learning; and 3. The environment as third teacher. RE1 Reggio Emilia schools pay special attention to the environment, therefore, are designed to inform and include students and school visitors Schroeder-Yu, The approach describes three educators at the same time: The aesthetic, the beauty of the schools and the classroom atmosphere are pampered and cared for in detail. The teachers organise the space in a way that is inviting for students to explore, experiment and investigate.
The multiple languages of the children. RE2 In the Reggio Emilia schools, the arts are integrated as tools for cognitive, linguistic and social development. The teachers use arts as a vehicle to understand the thinking process of the students Bennett, As Vecchi mentions, in the Reggio approach, it is decided to extend the term "language" beyond verbal languages and is considered as the different ways in which language is used by human beings to express themselves: RE3 The projects, which can be short one week or long term one academic yearare focused on the interests of the students, therefore, the teachers help the students to make decisions regarding the directions in which to take over the research Loh, The image of the child RE5 is considered a powerful, competent, creative, curious, full of potential and ambitious entity Malaguzzi, Hence, the child is considered a researcher with the ability to question and experiment.
Thanks to the projects, the students are able to co-construct knowledge through discussions with their teachers and classmates.
The projects, used as research strategies are born from the children's interests that come from their experiences, their exploration and the questions they might have about the world that surrounds them.
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Through the projects, children can acquire cognitive, physical, social and language skills. Also, as they apply these skills into different contexts and situations, they may gain independence and confidence, taking their own decisions and responding to their own problems.
Negotiated Learning RE6 in this context, students co-construct their learning through working in social groups. Reggio Emilia educators, give much importance to the debates, the negotiations and to students solving problems cooperatively.
Teachers, therefore, must generate strategies to support students interacting amongst themselves, as throughout the negotiation, the students are able to generate knowledge. Why its never a good idea to think that dating a married woman will ever lead to the. You marry a Japanese woman, she will also take care of children well, so you can.
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