Los inmigrantes en la ciudad
En Estados Unidos la llegada de inmigrantes durante el siglo XIX supuso, lo hemos dicho, la arribada de contingentes de origen y culturas muy diversas. La convivencia, el intercambio, el conocimiento mutuo avanza. La ciudad transforma a los llegados, pero se enriquece y transforma al mismo tiempo con ellos.
Respecto a esto los datos son igualmente concluyentes. Las posibilidades que ofrece la ciudad en ese sentido son siempre infinitamente mayores que las que se dan en el campo. De manera semejante, el papel de los inmigrantes en el desarrollo de la ciudad ha sido reconocido multitud de veces. Sobre todo de las ciudades norteamericanas en general 32y respecto a algunas en particular, como Nueva York. Es el caso, por ejemplo, de Barcelona. De un total de escritores barceloneses de los siglos XVI al XIX 36los porcentajes de nacidos fuera de Barcelona ha sido los siguientes: Los grupos marginales o vencidos se situaban normalmente en lugares aparte: Como resultado de ello, los miembros de una raza tienden a pensar que son diferentes de otros grupos de personas, y los otros grupos pueden tratarlos como si realmente lo fueran.
En ese sentido puede ser un sentimiento beneficioso.
Incluso puede decirse que en nuestro siglo son menores, especialmente en la ciudad industrial, debido al establecimiento del Estado de Bienestar.
Aunque, naturalmente, pueden aumentar con el desmantelamiento del mismo, si se produce. En el caso de Barcelona los problemas no son especialmente graves, si comparamos con otras ciudades europeas o americanas. La importancia creciente del conocimiento en esta sociedad hace que adquiera un papel decisivo la mano de obra calificada. En esencia, hemos de distinguir entre dos tipos de migraciones. En segundo lugar, los inmigrantes de origen extranjero.
En el censo de los inscritos en el censo eran En eran ya En la cifra de oficialmente inscritos era de La paradoja es que, por un lado esos trabajadores extranjeros se siguen necesitando: O para prescindir de ellos si resulta necesario. Que es precisamente lo que ha ocurrido con los inmigrantes: Cuando los grupos de viejos, desempleados, inmigrantes, pobres tienen localizaciones segregadas eso se debe en buena parte a las rentas limitadas que les impiden elegir otras localizaciones.
Especialmente importantes pueden ser los conflictos entre viejos y nuevos inmigrantes.
PANCHO VILLA ATACA COLUMBUS, LA EXPEDICION PUNITIVA,
En primer lugar entre los viejos inmigrantes nacionales, ya integrados en la ciudad, pero afectados por problemas de desempleo, y los nuevos inmigrantes, nacionales o extranjeros. Pero la realidad de las fronteras estatales y las obligaciones de los estados hacia sus propios ciudadanos conducen a limitaciones efectivas de dichos derechos.
Pero el tiempo puede no bastar. En segundo lugar del deseo de asimilarse. Lo que ocurre cuando se es minoritario en un lugar pero se tiene conciencia de la superioridad. Puede haber tambien grupos de inmigrantes que no aceptan ciertas formas del grupo de acogida.
Y desean conservar una parte de esa cultura propia, aceptando, sin embargo, las normas sociales generales de la sociedad en que se integran.
Aunque eso se hiciera desde perspectivas nacionalistas y con un lenguaje biologicista que trataba de presentar los problemas y soluciones como inscritos en el orden de la naturaleza. This feeling that seemed like a knife twisting in his gut got its start back in the early parts of the Mexican-Revolution.
It was a time when Villa was something of a friend to the Americans.¿Qué es la Física Cuántica? -- Física Cuántica para todos (1/4)
It was a friendship, however, that was not viewed by all sides. Just as friends often split on bad terms, Villa was going to make sure he was leaving this relationship with the last words and the upper hand.
To a certain degree, Francisco Villa and the United States seemed to get along well from the start. Villa would often make visits along border towns after having completed some of his campaigns. Here, he would was received often as a celebrity. Americans would flock to see the famous Mexican fighter who was championing freedom for his people.
Villa favored eating in ice cream shops. Fransico Villa and Pascual Orozco were onced pictured in a local shop that once existed in the border town of El Paso. Ironically, Villa was also pictured standing next to his friend John Pershing. It would be Pershing who would one day be chasing after Villa. Fue recibido con frecuencia como una celebridad.
As the sun rose on the morning of March 9,the center of Columbus, New Mexico was a smoking ruin. Word of Pancho Villa's attack on the town flashed by telegraph, making newspaper headlines throughout the nation. Camp Furlong, the Columbus military outpost, seethed with activity as fresh troops arrived by train and the U. Army prepared to pursue Villa into Mexico.
The search for Villa would ultimately lead American troops some miles into Mexico, as far south as the city of Parral where, after a skirmish, they turned back to bases in northern Mexico. For 11 months, the 10, soldiers of Pershing's Punitive Expedition endured parching heat and bone-chilling cold as they ranged the wild deserts and mountains of the vast state of Chihuahua, tracking the Villista raiders.
The Punitive Expedition was the last true cavalry action mounted by the U. Army, and, ironically, was also the first U. In what would prove to be a preparation for World War I, Pershing experimented in Mexico with the use of automobiles, trucks, and airplanes, though fuel for those new-fangled machines often had to be transported on pack mules.
Pershing succeeded in dispersing the Mexican forces that had attacked Columbus, but the revolutionary chieftain, Pancho Villa, vanished into the Mexican backcountry and was never captured. In February,the Punitive Expedition returned to Columbus and Camp Furlong, where troops, toughened by the rigorous march through Chihuahua, boarded trains that would carry them to other conflicts.
Many would see action in World War I. Columbus and Camp Furlong Today. The military post at Camp Furlong was closed inand the extensive cactus gardens of Pancho Villa State Park now cover its site.
Several buildings dating from the time of Villa's raid still stand in Columbus, including the adobe Hoover Hotel, the restored Columbus railroad depot, and the old U. The customs house, build inis now the Pancho Villa State Park visitor center, with exhibits describing the histories of Pancho Villa, the Columbus raid ofand Pershing's Punitive Expedition.
Columbus y el Campamento Furlong en la actualidad. The Americans decided to test out some of their new military equipment out in the expedition against Villa, but they only succeeded in kicking up even more dust for Villa to hide behind, as he trailed the Americans - hidden behind their great cloud of dust.
Besides all of his trucks, motorcars, motocycles, and armored cars, Pershing also mustered dirigable balloons and airplanes in his relentless quest to find Villa. Legend has it - it is recorded in a song - that Villa's troops sewed togther an American Flag and stationed themselves in a conspicious place where they knew that one of these airplanes would fly over they had excellent intelligence on the Americans.
The pilot, thinking that he was seeing an American unit, landed and was immediately cpatured by the Villistas. Villa then used the plane to spy on the Americans. Soldados norteamericanos hechos prisioneros por el Ejercito Constitucionalista de Venustiano Carranza durante de la batalla de El Carrizal Instead of fighting it out with Villa, as they were intending to do, the American army instead would up in a battle with forces of Carranza, and they got the worst of it, with the survivors of their unit being captured in the town of Carrizo, kilometers south of Juarez.
Typically, the United States sent "negro" troops - known formerly as "buffalo soldiers" - to do their dirty work, while their white skinned countrymen stayed behind in relative safety. These soldiers were later returned to a less than hero's welcome by the Mexicans. This incident came close to bringing both countries to war, but it was later smoothed over.
Bandit, hero, valiant leader, ruthless tyrant? All of those names have been associated with him. He was not an easy man to define; it would depend on when you met him during his career. Here in Columbus, New Mexicothe same holds true.
Some of our citizens have been told by their older relatives that he was a defender of the people. Others say he killed many of his countrymen in their villages.
Here in Columbus, we saw the results of his raid. By the time the raid was over, one half the invaders were killed or wounded and 18 Americans were dead. This was the last time a foreign government invaded the Continental United States. In retaliation for the raid, President Wilson formed a military group to attack and capture Pancho Villa under the leadership of General "Black Jack" Pershing.
In the space of one week, Pershing not only drew up the logistical plan for the campaign, but actually had troops on the way to Columbus where he would march into Mexico. In a remarkably short time, the Punitive Expedition entered Mexico and tried to track Villa to his lair. They fought many small battles but never a big one. This was guerrilla warfare at its most effective. We were the foreign invaders. It was an educational time for our armed forces.
This was the first time that Americans used mechanized vehicles in combat. This included cars and trucks purchased on the open market from auto dealers in El Paso and other locations.
At that time, cars were not in general use; the drivers were given rudimentary instructions and told to drive.
The first armored vehicles were used here. They were the forerunners of tanks. Motorcycles also were used in combat conditions. They and mules often would have machine guns mounted as they rode into combat. As an interesting sidenote, the regular paths that people used to get from one village to another were too rough for our vehicles so the Army Corp of Engineers improved the road between Columbus and Casas Grande, Mexico.
Navajo County Arizona
This effort also included the first use of airplanes in combat conditions. Our entire air force eight planes was stationed in Columbus, a squadron of the signal corps. Up to this time, planes were used to carry messages. Here, since they were underpowered, they flew so low they would draw fire from people on the ground.
In self-defense, they carried grenades as bombs and shot back at the ground troops. The planes were also used as observers for the first time; they located suspected enemies and carried the news back to the troops.
It was an exciting time for the U. More than twenty thousand troopers gained experience in combat conditions which proved to be of great value as the U.
What effect did this have on Columbus? While the troops were here, Columbus was the largest settlement in New Mexico. But when they left, it became smaller than before. Over the years the town dwindled in size until the trains stopped running in the s.
The population dropped to around and the village was listed in many locations and guides as a ghost town. Now we are up to about the size of the village at the time of the raid, around people. We still maintain our rural character but with a surprise or two for the visitors to our area. Our Railroad Depot Museum was the railroad depot at the time of the raid and was one of the principal targets.