How DDoS attacks became the frontline tool of cyber-war
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Although Morris did not launch attacks by controlling infected computers in a centralized way, his work formed the basis for DDoS attacks by exploiting botnets.
In fact, even today injecting a Trojan virus by exploiting system vulnerabilities and launching attacks against the target through botnets, are the most common DDoS attack methods. Ina real DDoS attack--the Panix Attack--occurred, which affected commercial institutions' operations and caused huge losses. During the attack, a large number of SYN packets were sent, which caused the server to become unresponsive to customers' normal requests.
25 Years of DDoS
Affected organizations were able to install a filter on their routers to filter the attack traffic. Since then, Linux patch. Mafiaboy the Internet alias of Michael Calce used the attack tool TFN2 to launch distributed attacks against these commercial websites in an attempt to "control the Internet. Governments and Nations Become Targets In Julythe Code Red worm exploited a vulnerability in Internet information services IIStaking over control systems and forcing them to attack other targets.
How DDoS attacks became the frontline tool of cyber-war
A self-replicating worm that could automatically infect other systems, Code Red attacked the White House website, and since then we have seen DDoS attacks expanded to governmental websites with an intensifying impact.
From that point on, DDoS battles were not limited to individual and commercial organisations.
Sources show that 27 websites were attacked, and the intelligence services in South Korea indicate the attack was initiated by the Telecom Department of North Korea. However, no evidence has been found to support the claim.
In August of the same year, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube were attacked when someone who called himself Georgy revealed the truth of the South Ossetia war between Georgia and Russia in his blog space.
February 7, 2000: Mafiaboy DDos on Yahoo, 6 Other Web Sites
It was widely speculated that Russia launched the attacks, but again there was insufficient evidence. In this unprecedented religious war, US financial institutions, including Bank of America, Citibank, and HSBC were attacked, causing a significant impact on service availability.
In this case, the DNS reflection attack principle was to launch the traffic attack, reflecting traffic off a third party so the origin is concealed. An unprecedented peak traffic rate of Gbps was seen in this attack. The proliferation of the Internet of Things, in full force by the second half ofcreated fertile ground for botnets that can be used to launch SSDP-based Simple Service Discovery Protocol reflection attacks.
In effect, any network-connected device with a public IP address and vulnerable operating system can be an unwitting participant. This attack included a wide variety of attack vectors, including some sophisticated new techniques not seen before. Some theorise that this was caused by the Great Firewall GFW of China, in an effort to get Github to remove a specific class of content, but China has firmly denied this.
However using DDoS to distract IT security teams, while committing other cybercrimes, is an interesting twist. Both approaches are equally damaging.
Motivations and Methods DDoS attacks have shown a variety of different motivations, methods, and types over time. In the beginning, they were often seen as acts of individual heroism, but have now evolved into a type of invisible war: The motivations of DDoS attacks have changed from flaunting technical skills, to using DDoS as a tool for profit making.
Moreover, attack vectors are more sophisticated and smarter than ever. Though they were tasked with finding the hackers at the root, the situation was ultimately resolved by improved servers leaving cyber-criminals unable to overwhelm the strengthened servers. Despite the gradually improving ability to handle denial-of-service attacks, DDoS incidents persisted with increasing scale in the second half of the decade. One highlighted case in the UK involved a teenager sending a former employer five million emails to take their servers down.
The hacker was acquitted in the trial that ensued, but the judgement revealed flaws in the Police and Justice Bill, consequently amended to ban any and all denial of service attack.
Initial tensions broke out when the proposed movement of a Soviet war monument from the Estonian capital turned into riots from the ethnic Russian population. This then spilled over into cyberspace as the websites of several government offices and cities were taken down or defaced by Russian activists.
The event led many European officials to evaluate the protocols in such attacks as there was no precedent in the magnitude exhibited. Not soon after, Russia was once again linked to DDoS attacks in the build up to their five-day war with Georgia. Reports at the time indicated that several Georgian, Azerbaijani and Russian sites were driven offline with claims tying particular attacks to Russian intelligence and the Russian Business Network, a criminal gang alleged to have also been a part of the cyber attacks on Estonia.
The intensity of attacks in dwarfed those against Estonia as DDoS use escalated for that point onwards. The disputed Iranian election of July saw street protests reflected online when many pro-Ahmadinejad websites were brought down by mass DIY denial of service tools. Rather than using automated botnets, PHP scripts were utilised in crowd-sourced assaults on the government.
Internet of Things was the source of largest botnet attack in history
The two DDoS incidents with Russia and the Iranian election revealed that hacking, particularly using denial of service tools, had shifted from personal gain or targetted abuse, to politically motivated statements and attacks. The blogger was a vocal critic of the South Ossetia War between Russia and Georgia, and claimed that the KGB perpetrated the attack to silence him.
Though the political aspect of hacktivism played a prominent role in the events that unfolded, the increasingly worrying concern was the weakness of major sites under DDoS attacks.