Marissa Mayer - Wikipedia
marches against genetic engineering in western countries to date occurred . from our position in the debate, defined as a position of the third space of 18 Cited in Yahoo Australia & NZ News, 'Royal Commission offers a way forward'. Marissa Ann Mayer is an American information technology executive, and co- founder of Lumi Labs. Mayer formerly served as the president and chief executive officer of Yahoo!, . She started out writing code and overseeing small teams of engineers, developing and designing Google's search offerings. She became known. E-mail: [email protected] Received Date: July 19, ; Accepted Date: October 25, ; Published Date: October 31, Citation: Haroon Genetic engineering purpose is to introduce foreign gene of interest in an organism.
Answers is suboptimal for questions requiring factual answers and that the quality decreases as the number of users increases. Answers provides, particularly the persistence of inaccuracies, the inability to correct them, and a point structure that rewards participation more readily than accuracy, all indicate that the site is oriented towards encouraging use of the site, not offering accurate answers to questions.
Answers itself indicate that Yahoo! Answers attracts a large number of trolls. The site does not have a system that filters the correct answers from the incorrect answers. Answers, once the "best answer" was chosen, there was no way to add more answers nor to improve or challenge the best answer chosen by the question asker; there is a display of thumbs down or thumbs up for each answer, but viewers cannot vote.
In Aprilthis was changed to allow for additional answers after a best answer is chosen, but the best answer can never be changed. Also, while "best answers" can be briefly commented upon, the comment is not visible by default and is hence hardly read. InThe U. Chakrabarty, approved the principle of patenting genetically engineered life forms. Scientists at Ohio University produce the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other animals into mice. The first gene-synthesizing machines are developed.
The first genetically engineered plant is reported. The first recombinant DNA vaccine for livestock is developed. The first biotech drug, human insulin produced in genetically modified bacteria, is approved by FDA. Genentech and Eli Lilly developed the product. This is followed by many new drugs based on biotechnologies.
PCR, which uses heat and enzymes to make unlimited copies of genes and gene fragments, later becomes a major tool in biotech research and product development worldwide. The first artificial chromosome is synthesized. Inthe first genetic markers for specific inherited diseases were found.
The first genetic transformation of plant cells by TI plasmids is performed. Inthe DNA fingerprinting technique was developed. Genetic markers are found for kidney disease and cystic fibrosis.
The first recombinant vaccine for humans, a vaccine for hepatitis B, is approved. Interferon becomes the first anticancer drug produced through biotech.18 Genetically Modified Organisms You Don't Know About
University of California, Berkeley, chemist Dr. Peter Schultz describes how to combine antibodies and enzymes abzymes to create therapeutics. The first pest-resistant corn, Bt corn, is produced.
Congress funds the Human Genome Project, a massive effort to map and sequence the human genetic code as well as the genomes of other species.
The World Needs the U.S. to Lead on Genetic Engineering
Inchymosin known as Rennin was the first enzyme produced from a genetically modified source-yeast-to be approved for use in food. Inonly five proteins from genetically engineered cells had been approved as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration FDAbut this number would skyrocket to over by the end of the s.
Inmicroorganisms were used to clean up the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The first successful gene therapy is performed on a 4-year-old girl suffering from an immune disorder. The first breast cancer gene is discovered. Gene therapy, immune-system modulation and recombinantly produced antibodies enter the clinic in the war against cancer.
The first baboon-to-human bone marrow transplant is performed on an AIDS patient. The first vaccine for Hepatitis A is developed. The first genetically engineered crop is commercialized. The first human artificial chromosome is created.
A rough draft of the human genome map is produced, showing the locations of more than 30, genes. Human skin is produced for the first time in the lab. The complete genetic code of the human chromosome is deciphered. Kenya field-tests its first biotech crop, virus-resistant sweet potato. Craig Venter, inwas able to sequence the human genome. The sequence of the human genome is published in Science and Nature, making it possible for researchers all over the world to begin developing treatments.
Gleevec is the first gene-targeted drug to receive FDA approval. EPA approves the first transgenic rootworm-resistant corn. The banteng, an endangered species, is cloned for the first time. The Human Genome Project completes sequencing of the human genome. UN Food and Agriculture Organization endorses biotech crops, stating biotechnology is a complementary tool to traditional farming methods that can help poor farmers and consumers in developing nations.
The Energy Policy Act is passed and signed into law, authorizing numerous incentives for bioethanol development. The National Institutes of Health begins a year, 10,patient study using a genetic test that predicts breast-cancer recurrence and guides treatment.
Inthe artist Stelarc had an ear grown in a vat and grafted onto his arm. FDA approves the H5N1 vaccine, the first vaccine approved for avian flu. Scientists discover how to use human skin cells to create embryonic stem cells. Chemists in Japan create the first DNA molecule made almost entirely of artificial parts. Global biotech crop acreage reaches million acres.
InSasaki and Okana produced transgenic marmosets that glow green in ultraviolet light and pass the trait to their offspring. FDA approves the first genetically engineered animal for production of a recombinant form of human antithrombin. InCraig Venter was successful in demonstrating that a synthetic genome could replicate autonomously. Inscientists created malaria-resistant mosquitoes. Trachea derived from stem cells transplanted into human recipient. Unlike DNA, it can be carefully manipulated.
Two research teams announced a fast and precise new method for editing snippets of the genetic code. Researchers in Japan developed functional human liver tissue from reprogrammed skin cells. Public Health Ethics There are many potential public health benefits of genetic engineering. Consider, for example, the use of phytoremediation to facilitate environmental clean-up, and the production and distribution of plant-made vaccines to improve resistance to such infectious diseases as measles, mumps, and hepatitis B that remain endemic in the developing world.
Given the health burden imposed by toxic environments and the persistence of infectious diseases, such feats of genetic engineering would be important to advancing public health both locally and globally. And yet even in these domains where public health is the goal of genetic engineering, ethical concerns remain.
Genetic engineering - Credo Reference
In particular, there are worries about the just distribution of the benefits of these technologies so as to reduce or, at least, so as not to increase health inequities within and between societies, and also about the risk that genetic engineering will draw attention away from tried-and-true public health interventions that may yield more important and lasting benefits for the health of populations such as clean water and improved sanitation.
An additional ethical issue concerns the potential malevolent use of technologies developed for positive or benign purposes. Consider that knowledge of influenza genome sequences may be used to tailor perfectly adapted vaccines, but may also be used to engineer more virulent strains of influenza. Each of these possible scenarios would have a significant impact on the health of whole populations. Moreover, the use of chemical and biological weapons such as the release of sarin gas in the Tokyo subway in and the circulation of anthrax-laced packages via the United States Postal Service in has raised significant biosecurity concerns that may be exacerbated by genetic engineering.
Just as genetic engineering may be used to promote public health and safety in the face of bioterror threats, it may also be used to synthesize new biowarfare agents or even to weaponize zoonotic infections. In addition to concerns about health inequities and the dual-use of genetic engineering, there are a number of serious health and safety concerns summarized in Table 1.
Beginning with the recombinant DNA controversy in the s, which culminated with a temporary moratorium on this research negotiated at Asilomar Krimsky,health and safety issues have been of central concern in ongoing public debates about genetic engineering: Will it be possible to contain genetically engineered bacteria and viruses in the laboratory? Will it be possible to precisely control the behavior of genetically modified materials in vivo? While appropriate regulations may manage the threat of containment breaches as with biohazardous research in generalit will always be difficult to fully control DNA in development, especially in humans and other complex animals.
From a public health perspective, since the results of human genetic engineering protocols may be more or less permanent, either restricted to a single generation or intended to be intergenerationally heritable, there may be long-term risks for human health that are difficult to quantify and assess. Additionally, there is considerable concern about the prospect of zoonosis, whereby a disease is transmitted to a human from a nonhuman animal.
Given the evidence that human immunodeficiency virus HIV began as a zoonotic infection, and given contemporary worries about avian influenza, the prospect of introducing or promoting zoonotic infections is decidedly unwelcome. Table 1 A partial inventory of public health ethical concerns associated with genetic engineering Equitable access to benefits Genetic engineering risks widening the gap between haves and have-nots both within the developed world and between the developed and developing worlds Research priorities and opportunity costs Genetic engineering research is expensive, is often driven by a corporate or military agenda, and in some cases may yield health benefits out of proportion to global health needs.
Moreover, experience with direct genetic modification is relatively recent, and long-term risks cannot as yet be assessed Zoonosis Genetic engineering that involves crossing species boundaries generates the risk of zoonotic infection: The transmission of a disease from a nonhuman animal to a human host Other ethical concerns Human eugenics and enhancement Genetic engineering is inherently directed toward particular goals, including the elimination of certain phenotypes and the promotion of others.
There is a disability rights critique of such research on the grounds that it embodies able-ism - eugenic discrimination based on physical or mental capacities. Additionally, there are concerns about enhancement of humans beyond species-typical norms, potentially resulting in fundamental changes in human nature Animal welfare Genetic engineering technologies are often initially tested in nonhuman animals, from mice to nonhuman primates. Generic animal welfare considerations apply, as do new concerns about the significance of possible changes wrought by genetic engineering.
From a secular perspective, the concern is with hubris: But attention to the potential risks of a technology fails to acknowledge a wide range of other ethical and societal considerations that cannot be addressed by a precautionary approach. Table 1 summarizes additional ethical concerns associated with genetic engineering, including concerns about hubris, the integrity of nature, animal welfare, and human eugenics and enhancement. Conclusion In summary, genetic engineering poses both potential benefits as well as potential risks to public health.
In the domains of agriculture, environmental management, and medicine, the public health implications of genetic engineering are complex, both scientifically and ethically. While genetic engineering may help to promote health and prevent illness by increasing the quality and quantity of food, by cleaning up toxic environments, and by alleviating human health problems into the future, it may also threaten human health by compromising the food supply, by negatively affecting other aspects of local and more global ecosystems, or by introducing new health problems as a function of genetic manipulation of humans and other organisms.
These risk and benefit issues are important, but so too are less consequentialist ethical considerations that focus on equity and justice, research priority setting and opportunity costs, dual use of beneficial technologies, the social implications of human eugenics and enhancement, animal welfare, the sanctity of nature, and scientific hubris.