Chiapas - Wikipedia
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There was some influence from the rising powers of central Mexico but two main indigenous groups emerged during this time, the Zoques and the various Mayan descendents. The Chiapans, for whom the state is named, migrated into the center of the state during this time and settled around Chiapa de Corzo, the old Mixe—Zoque stronghold. However, they had enough influence so that the name of this area and of the state would come from Nahuatl. When the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, they found the indigenous peoples divided into Mayan and non-Mayan, with the latter dominated by the Zoques and Chiapa.
The Spanish colonial government then sent a new expedition under Diego de Mazariegos. Mazariegos had more success than his predecessor, but many indigenes preferred to commit suicide rather than submit to the Spanish.LACANDONES LUCHAN POR SOBREVIVIR EN UN MUNDO MAGICO CON ECOTURISMO
One famous example of this is the Battle of Tepetchiawhere many jumped to their deaths in the Sumidero Canyon. The conquistadors brought previously unknown diseases. This, as well as overwork on plantations, dramatically decreased the indigenous population. He also advocated adapting the teaching of Christianity to indigenous language and culture. The encomienda system that had perpetrated much of the abuse of the indigenous peoples fell away by the end of the 16th century, and was replaced by haciendas.
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However, the use and misuse of Indian labor remained a large part of Chiapas politics into modern times. One uprising against high tribute payments occurs in the Tzeltal communities in the Los Alto region in Soon, the Tzoltzils and Ch'ols joined the Tzeltales in rebellion, but within a year, the government was able to extinguish the rebellion.
Livestock such as cattle, horses and sheep were introduced as well. Regions would specialize in certain crops and animals depending on local conditions and for many of these regions, communication and travel were difficult. Intermixing of the races was prohibited by colonial law but by the end of the 17th century there was a significant mestizo population.
Added to this was a population of African slaves brought in by the Spanish in the middle of the 16th century due to the loss of native workforce. Two other regions were also established, the Soconusco and Tuxtla, all under the regional colonial government of Guatemala.
Chiapas, Soconusco and Tuxla regions were united to the first time as an intendencia during the Bourbon Reforms in as an administrative region under the name of Chiapas. However, within this intendencia, the division between Chiapas and Soconusco regions would remain strong and have consequences at the end of the colonial period. One reason for this was the rugged terrain but the other was that much of Chiapas was not attractive to the Spanish for its lack of mineral wealth, large areas of arable land, and easy access to markets.
The isolation of Chiapas from centers of power, along with the strong internal divisions in the intendencia caused a political crisis after royal government collapsed in Mexico City inending the Mexican War of Independence.
This group became known as the La Familia Chiapaneca.
However, this alliance did not last with the lowlands preferring inclusion among the new republics of Central America and the highlands annexation to Mexico. InGuatemala became part of the United Provinces of Central Americawhich united to form a federal republic that would last from to Elites in highland cities pushed for incorporation into Mexico.
Inthe Junta General de Gobierno was held and Chiapas declared independence again. Elites of the area would not accept this until The state's society evolved into three distinct spheres: Most of the political struggles were between the latter two groups especially over who would control the indigenous labor force.
Economically, the state lost one of its main crops, indigo, to synthetic dyes. There was a small experiment with democracy in the form of "open city councils" but it was short lived because voting was heavily rigged.
The Reform War — fought between Liberals, who favored federalism and sought economic development, decreased power of the Roman Catholic Church, and Mexican army, and Conservatives, who favored centralized autocratic government, retention of elite privileges, did not lead to any military battles in the state. Despite that it strongly affected Chiapas politics. Much of the division between the highland and lowland ruling families was for whom the Indians should work for and for how long as the main shortage was of labor.
Corzo became the primary exponent of Liberal ideas in the southeast of Mexico and defended the Palenque and Pichucalco areas from annexation by Tabasco. Liberal governments expropriated lands that were previously held by the Spanish Crown and Catholic Church in order to sell them into private hands.
This was not only motivated by ideology, but also due to the need to raise money. However, many of these lands had been in a kind of "trust" with the local indigenous populations, who worked them.
Liberal reforms took away this arrangement and many of these lands fell into the hands of large landholders who when made the local Indian population work for three to five days a week just for the right to continue to cultivate the lands.
This requirement caused many to leave and look for employment elsewhere. Most became "free" workers on other farms, but they were often paid only with food and basic necessities from the farm shop. If this was not enough, these workers became indebted to these same shops and then unable to leave. These communities had had almost no contact with the Ladino world, except for a priest.
The new Ladino landowners occupied their acquired lands as well as others, such as shopkeepers, opened up businesses in the center of Indian communities.
Ina group of Tzeltals plotted to kill the new mestizos in their midst, but this plan was discovered, and was punished by th removal of large number of the community's male members.
The changing social order had severe negative effects on the indigenous population with alcoholism spreadings, leading to more debts as it was expensive.
Chiapas - Wikiwand
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