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The method of images, conformal transformation, and the integral-equation Chennai (India); Vijaya, J. Judith, E-mail: [email protected] the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming . At the time of Operation Yahoo in April-May , 61 Mech was about 1 men strong. . All together 72 of their fighters were thus taken out of the fighting equation. .. up — the enemy picture neatly marked and kept up to date hour-by- hour. All around the burning Ratel I found our remaining soldiers of the section. Main · Videos; Free dating like craigslist korean american guys dating single · combustion reaction examples yahoo dating · shes dating the gangster book 2.

The home of our mechanised combat unit was located approximately: The base was hidden away in the most southern part of Ovamboland. Close to the tarred road, this extended km northwards towards Ondangwa. Roughly 32km westwards the eastern fringes of the Etosha pan lay swathed in a humid haze surrounded by the dense bushes of Africa. He was sort of my military boss when it came to operations in his sector.

The general officer commander was Major General Charles Lloyd. I had immense respect for this outstanding military commander. He was my real boss. The Death Triangle lay south of the Red Line.

This boundary lay parallel from west to east across the northern part of the Etosha Game reserve. During the days of peaceful farming the Bravo cut-line had formed the barrier for mouth and foot disease between the northern border regions. The complete northern quarter of SWA encapsulated Ovamboland and the Okavango Province and the southern farming district. During the war the Bravo cut-line was primarily used to demarcate this area for military purposes: Sector 30 was in overall charge of counter-insurgency operations in the region specified above.

This equated to the Death Triangle. Dear reader you now know where the fighting was about to take place in April-May With Operation Yahoo it started on the fateful morning of the 15th of Aprilfollowed by the mourning, the killing and more mourning.

When peace finally settled in that quarter of the world after twenty four years of bitter war, South West Africa came to be known as Namibia.

It was them we were ardently fighting all those years, remember, during Operation Yahoo as well. The war played-out in the north had ever rippling circles of terror spilling over the White Farming Area in the south and Southern Angola to the north.

These two features characterised the border war. We will Never Forget — an Opening Gambit To my soldiery way of thinking, warriors from both sides had not fought, lived and died through an elongated bush war for nothing, particularly for those young soldiers of ours, my men.

Those magnificent 19 year old South African soldiery types who had been ensnared by compulsory national military service; those men who had fought so courageously and loyally during the border war. Were our national servicemen not taken for granted? Perhaps…However, as a permanent force officer and a commander of a combat unit such as 61 Mech, I knew one thing for certain: They were the best of the warrior kind any commander could wish for.

You were men my sons. Implied are the combatants of their Special Unit, who had fought just as hard for their own peace and liberty. Even during the same operation I am writing about. The innocent civilians who had suffered unending trauma were forever clouding my mind in rushes of understanding and compassion. Those people 61 Mech had lived with and fought for. They had not only been the victims of shear terrorism; they were also left incessantly at the mercy of militaristic and political whims and woes in that particular theatre if war.

In the merry months of April and May, many of those embraced within the aforementioned rationalizations were going to die, get wounded and remain wounded and maimed for life. They needed to demonstrate strike capability. Their international support and their funding depended on this. SWAPO was going to squeeze every ounce of life out of this immense warlike effort — their next suicide mission on hand.

Give no quarter, even if this meant dying for the cause. Be it at the hands of an overwhelming persistent counter-insurgency task force. Considering their deliberate well-planned incursion during April to Maydeception and all; many insurgents died in the end on those grounds for their cause.

It was launched from deep inside southern Angola, from Lubango and developed in two southerly routes via Cahama and Techamutete-Cassinga. The two incursions developed over a wide front — towards Kamanjab in the west and Tsumeb in the east.

The operational dimensions of Yahoo were imposing and from both sides the force levels enormous — this was not the norm as in past infiltrations. The counter-insurgency task force, which performed under command of 61 Mech, comprised more than 3 military and para-military combatants; a South African Air Force SAAF contingent of inspiring proportions; police forces which roused the interest and; service support of staggering percentages.

More so, Operation Yahoo basked in the lime light of media attention; enticed political apprehensions and; propagandistic outings of note from all sides. It reverberated in the halls of the South African parliament and brought the focussed attention of the highest military commands of South Africa and SWA to bear. Out there in front were a few young soldiers from opposing sides, for ragged moments in time, at the whims of the militaries and of politics.

A total number of seventeen of our warriors and civilians died in action during Operation Yahoo. All together forty four were wounded in the fiery fray. Forty one soldiers were wounded in contacts and through landmine explosions. Three were wounded from such incidents. The insurgents succeeded in murdering only two community members over the two month period of operational viability. Of the original surge of two hundred fighters of Volcano, combatants succeeded infiltrating the Death Triangle.

Of the latter bad company we kept during Operation Yahoo: All of the sixteen captured were convinced to work with the security forces in the end. All together 72 of their fighters were thus taken out of the fighting equation.

Of the enlightened a few filtered quietly into the neighbourhoods, keeping low profiles. Sixteen fought on enthusiastically with the security forces against erstwhile comrades. The pay and the service conditions were much better… Africa my beginning, Africa my end. Operation Yahoo was therefore not your ordinary house hold low-intensity type counter-insurgency operation. It was high-intensity counter-revolutionary warfare, no holds barred. When I wrote this chronicle about Yahoo I invariably thought about one of the poems of a Senegalese poet of the 60s.

David Diop had written the following: Operation Yahoo was such a surge with bitter flavours… When so many died and were wounded within those two months of intense fighting!

So Who Won the Fight in the End? So who won this fight in the end — considering the dead and the wounded versus the immense propagandistic proceeds engendered trough the dying for a political war? Thirty years later, after Operation Yahoo ended, I visited Tsumeb again. The tin-mining town was at peace with itself, surrounded by flowery aromas of Jacaranda and blooming Bougainvillea.

The visit transpired during a battlefield tour undertaken unreservedly by a few veterans of 61 Mech and 32 Battalion to Namibia and southern Angola in October Many Black and White people in Namibia greeted us with friendliness in Afrikaans.

His name was Alex Britz and he came to greet us in Tsumeb, my friend from many years ago. We shared a few Windhoek beers, shed some tears and laughed. It was about the good old days. We were seated comfortably on old army camp chairs reminiscing about times of Yore. A camp fire was smouldering gently away on dry Camel Thorn. We banded around its companionship as old warriors sometimes do. We were all lost in thought about the past and what had happened during Operation Yahoo in April-Maythirty years ago.

Memories came rushing back as I wrote this chronicle………. Yahoo had been a military operation I will never forget! It was one of the most challenging and exciting fractions of my life and military career. The military and civilian people who lived and died during that period touched my soul. I must be careful of what I utter, as emotions flood back in ebb and flow.

People had learned through this life-long struggle I thought, politicians as well…Hopefully…? Through the many years of bitterness and fighting a better form of peace had been created in our part of the world byhad it not? Yahoo had done its bit for sure, from all the sides involved. What follows is the story of Operation Yahoo as I saw it.

It is not an easy story to tell. It is not simple either. State of Play — us and Them Elusive Serenity South Of the Red Line To the south of Omuthiya and the Red Line one could find a few farms and the town of Tsumeb, wrapped in languid African serenity… Beyond Tsumeb, the farms and the bush and the mountains nestled the settlements of Otavi and Grootfontein and some more farms. It belonged to the communities within which 61 Mech flourished — some of our own permanent force families as well.

We lived amongst these people of northern SWA. Our children went to school there, whilst their soldier fathers went to the north, mostly far away from home…Even Omuthiya, the operational base of 61 Mech, which was km north of Tsumeb. The community saw 61 Mech as belonging to them — their bulwark against terrorism.

Strangely enough the aforementioned towns prospered during the South African Border war. These small settlements became affluent, notwithstanding the war, but because of the war. It was quite pleasant for us from 61 Mech, to live and fight there, in the African warmth and the companionships of the people we befriended there.

It was this elusive serenity 61 Mech found up north — the tranquillity wherein ordinary people lived and could die violently.

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The odd tourist, who came to visit the Etosha Game Reserve, could not discern off-hand that these communities were gripped by fear. This you could only read on their faces came April-May each year. When the insurgents came with the rain and the Winter Games began…Once again… Back to Basics — Operational Relevancies of Our Time To appreciate Operation Yahoo better it is important to identify with the position of 61 Mech before the fighting came about.

These included the operational relevancies which led up to the action of April-May One significant reason for the latter was that 61 Mech played an essential role during Operation Yahoo. It is important to note that 61 Mech had participated in a fair number of internal as well as external operations during The external fighting zone was denoted by the Angolan 5th Military Region.

Twenty two terrorists had infiltrated the Death Triangle on 6 April It had been an extremely successful operation, fared by a joint task force of Sector 30 under the command of 61Mech. The operation was completed within thirteen days. Eighteen insurgents were killed and three captured. Chance put me in position to shoot the last insurgent from my Ratel on 18 April Only one combatant escaped. Major General Charles Lloyd was happy with the results of the operation.

The counter-insurgency task force, together with the community, felt pleased about their combined achievement. Normal life in this particular sector of the northern operational area of SWA resumed peacefully until 14 April Thrown into boot were a few bothersome Cuban forces and Russian military advisors. FAPLA had now been driven back: Search and destroy operations were effectively directed from a tactical headquarters deployed at Ongiva.

Our unit was now either at the call of Sector 10 northwards or southwards to Sector At thy calls 61 Mech shall not falter. These were all well known haunts of 61 Mech from the hey-days of Operation Protea.

Our combat unit had deployed externally from 1 March until 7 March at the request of Sector The operation was intended as a show of force. It aimed at physically dominating the Cunene Province by means of military power. Once again this swift intervention had served as a fair warning for the conventional enemy army to remain at bay: Cahama to the west of the Cunene River and Techamutete and Cassinga to the north — stay there enemy or else. On own initiative 61 Mech had changed this to 3-hours stand-by.

This accounted for rapid deployment from the field as well. For that matter, the sub-units or our unit as a whole trained and did its military exercises anywhere. This was life with 61 Mech at its best, exciting times, living on the edge. Where did the operational priorities of 61 Mech lay, to the north with Sector 10, or the south with Sector 30? The rainy season in the operational area normally lasted from April to December.

This provided the insurgents with sufficient drinking water to undertake deep infiltrations to the south. This observable fact furthermore brought flash rains to wash away their tracks; denser foliage to move under cover; inundations to impede the vehicular movement of security forces for cross-tracking and follow-ups and; showers to obscure the view of scouting aircraft.

In the meantime April was crawling closer. The terrorist threat towards the south was building up fatefully towards 14 April Who was responsible for this insurgent threat from the north? Sector 10 covered the western part and encapsulated Ovamboland. Sector 20 to the east was responsible for the Okavango Province. As it were, Sector 10 was already operating inside southern Angola across Ovamboland, within the Area-in-Dispute.

As mentioned before, the man accountable and responsible to hold the enemies from entering the portals of Tsumeb, Otavi and Grootfontein was Colonel J. Louw, the commander of Sector 30 situated at Otjiwarongo.

At the beg and call that is and not to falter when crises reared its ugly head to the north, south, east or west of us. What loomed was ominous. The unfolding situation bode evil to the innocent community residing unawares to the south of Omuthiya and the Red Line. Was anyone responsible out there noticing the war clouds rising higher than ever before? Or seeing the impending fire storm approaching more severe than ever?

Apparently not, as nothing wise came forth that 61 Mech or the community could discern from the more informed to the north and south of us. In the meantime seven large insurgent groups were already moving stealthily southwards on their voyage of death from SWAPO lairs deep inside southern Angola. The signs were there for all too see, ironically so. Operation Super which had been successfully completed by 32 Battalion a month ago, was a crystal clear indicator.

This should have been a clear indication that the intensity and scope of deep infiltrations to the south were about to change face from the past. This was their jump-off point for a well planned infiltration southwards through Kaokoland. The planned attack was aborted due to adverse weather conditions and was only carried through the next day.

Thirty soldiers were deployed as stopper groups, while the main force of 45 launched the attack on the enemy base. Although the terrorists greatly outnumbered the soldiers, they were surprised and overwhelmed — altogether two hundred and twenty one SWAPO insurgents were killed with only one managing to escape.

Three members of 32 Battalion were killed in action and two sustained slight wounds. A large number of prisoners were captured and significant quantities of food, weapons and logistical equipment taken. The mission was crowned with exceptional success. Forewarned is forearmed, the prompt for pre-emption and pro-active measures. Did this happen, yes or no? We were more or less minding our own business. Oh yes, we were planning, preparing, training and exercising fervently as usual.

This was operation normal for 61 Mech. Our current predicament was that the particulars of the impending enemy April-May invasion threat remained alluding.

We could literally do nothing about the situation, apart from guessing, assessing, planning, preparing and waiting at the ready. At 61 Mech we instinctively knew that the insurgents of Volcano were coming south — call it logic, gut feeling, womanly intuition, whatever. When, where, how, how many? Where they were now…? Time and locale by map grid reference please…! Hey, is anybody interested in telling 61 Mech what the hell is happening out there?

In our beloved corrugated iron operations centre at Omuthiya the maps were up — the enemy picture neatly marked and kept up to date hour-by-hour. The radios were humming as our intelligence and operations personnel monitored the radio nets of Sectors 10 at Oshakati, 20 at Rundu and 30 at Otjiwarongo. The members of the HQ staff of 61 Mech were equally interested in the weather forecasts and similarly watched out for rain clouds.

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They knew the game: Their supporting staffs as well. They were old hand at infiltrations. We knew our enemy. We had made a list of battle indications we could use as yardsticks to monitor any omen coming from the vast bush lands to north of Omuthiya.

There were, however, four teeny-weenie issues which influenced the way 61 Mech went about its progressive day-to-day operational work. This especially concerned the impending enemy threat to innocent souls to the south of us, those innocents who lived at nearby farms and towns.

Those were the people who were depending on the might of the military machine in the region to safeguard them against stark terrorism.

This responsibility 61 Mech had relinquished after Operation Carrot had been successfully completed by 18 April The mandate for this then reverted to Sector 30 whose responsibility it actually was. The package-deal included handing over the former role 61 Mech had to command the joint task force in times of crises. The reason for this was simply that 61 Mech was being committed more and more for fleeting operations into southern Angola.

This had become the nature of the beast. In fairness, this was the true role of 61 Mech. Such operations would in future obviously unfold under command of Sector The real worry was that we were hearing nothing from Sector Yes, there was a general emergency plan in place, which I would explain in more detail below. The problem was that no particular contingency planning or pro-active measures were being undertaken for the brooding enmity on hand.

This really had me worried as the bewitched month of April was creeping closer. To 61 Mech who knew and understood high readiness, this was not the way, if I may say so myself. As it were, we were already on three hours stand-by for any possible threat, which could explode in our faces at any moment.

Would we be there to support them if the time came? The perception of the community was that 61 Mech was theirs. Fortunately for them, we had always been available in the past for emergencies, more or less at beg and call.

They had come to rely, respect and trust 61 Mech. What would their perceptions be, if trouble came and 61 Mech was not there to come to the rescue? Our sub-units still required extensive mission training and were in the process of acclimatizing and getting used to the operational ways of 61 Mech.

They were however well trained, make no mistake about that. The other plus point was that 61 Mech had outstanding soldiers, both permanent force and national servicemen. It was commanded and managed by a core of permanent force members and national service junior leaders. Those leaders were men of calibre. The previous year, prior to Operation Carrot, 61 Mech had done a comprehensive threat assessment and had compiled a contingency plan for such crises.

The said plan was then war-gamed with all possible combat participants for such operations. This occurred early in March For the season this plan was reassessed and now served as a base-line for our new sub-unit intake. Our HQ and other supporting capabilities were on stand-by and high-readiness as well. This was done in accordance with the aforementioned contingency plan: The two mechanised infantry companies for follow-ups, rapid response, ambushing, cross-tracking, etcetera; the armour squadron for mobile patrols, convoy duties, road-blocks, cross-tracking, cordoning, show of force and so forth; the artillery battery to deploy for farm protection operations, as the tradition was.

My battery commander, Major Chris Roux was a conscientious officer. Roux would be in overall control of all farm protection operations, if this should be required.

Cool thinking and the ability to deploy and re-deploy rapidly was the name of the game. Major Giel Reinecke would sort out the logistics, no question about that. One major concern remained. We dearly needed timeous early warning from Sector The whole stance of 61 Mech was to pre-empt and be pro-active. Our unit, as such, was extremely uncomfortable when we had no choice, but to wait for something to happen.

Our dictum had always been to search for forward ground and to be ready at all times. Frustration was not the word to explain our current situation. So be it 61 Mech, be ready in any case, notwithstanding… After all, this was not our responsibility anymore. It was the responsibility of Sector 30 and their Northern Border Company now deployed at Tsintsabis, was it not? In April-May they came. To achieve, the foe needed to assail simultaneously from Lubango via Cahama and Techamutete-Cassinga.

The main goal was to terrorise the White farming community and to bring about propaganda gains through devious deeds in the Death Triangle. The enemy needed to cross vast expanses of ground to reach their targets and exfiltrate again. It took planning, craft utilisation, time and effort. Own forces needed to track down and destroy the enemy across the same ground which took better planning, craftier utilisation, optimal utilisation of time and effort. Naturally all enemy infiltrating routes led south and exfiltrating routes led north.

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There were basically two aiming points for the enemy when attacking towards the killing area south of the Red Line: Firstly by pouncing on Kamanjab and Outjo from the western side of the Etosha and secondly, to take on Tsumeb-Grootfontein-Otavi- Otjiwarongo through the bush veldt, to the east of the Etosha. To come through the stark Etosha Pan would be shear madness if without a respirator and sixteen jerry cans of water per combatant.

It was difficult to survive and to hide in the harshness of this unforgiving terrain. It was relatively easy to hunt the enemy down in the infertility of this killing field. From there by road to Cahama. From Cahama on foot, passing Ruacana to its east, southwards to the north-western fringes of the Etosha Game Reserve, km and counting.

Then, action stations, onto Kamanjab and Outjo, another gruelling km, for the dying to begin. To the east there were the abundance of cover, food and water of Ovamboland and Okavango — everything the insurgent required to sustain deep infiltrations to the far south. The one problem was the sandy soil conditions to the north of the Bravo cutline. The sand stretched deep into southern Angola. This terrain was ideal for the tracking of the insurgents by the security forces.

From their base our wily foe travelled in luxury by Russian Ural past Matala to Techamutete-Cassinga. Then it was a la foot all the way south, until the lights of Tsumeb winked, km to go and counting.

To the south of the Red Line it was another winter ballgame all together. There were plentiful hiding place in the dense thorny bush and the ground was extremely firm and rocky, which made tracking difficult for own forces. There were, however, a few advantages for the hunters. The first was the mere fact that they knew the terrain better than the enemy did. The next was the excellent infrastructure, which allowed the rapid deployments of forces by ground and air means. Especially those committed, tenacious local trackers, the mainstay against terrorism.

They were out there, taking point, searching for and destroying the enemy at high tempo, notwithstanding the thorns.

The hard rocky earth, nor the Russian Pom-Z personnel mines, could put off the undaunted trackers and their persistent follow-up groups. The highly committed teams were spreading out on the ground — relentlessly searching and destroying until the job was done.

The local fighters were supreme, they knew the ground man, and they knew the ground. The foxes left countless Russian Pom-Z mines and other booby-traps in their wakes to deter the hounds. During Operation Yahoo many a follow-up force became victim of those explosive devices left behind by the receding enemy.

To enemy mines alone our force sustained two killed and twenty six wounded. The answers to these threats of the undaunted were sixth sense, superb field craft, eyes to the ground, eyes to the front, fire, take cover, win the fire fight, fire and manoeuvre from the ground and the air, and fight through the enemy to the other side. To carry on and repeat the performance until the job was done.

Alpha and Bravo were well maintained. The Bravo cut-line was patrolled on a daily basis throughout the year. Every day the km was traversed by soldier, Buffel mine protected troop carrier and broom.

The broom was usually a small tree pulled behind the vehicle, which left clean drag marks for the next patrol to follow, so as to find enemy tracks more easily. The Bravo was based on the Red Line; the Alpha was located parallel to the Bravo, 10km further to the north.

Cut-line Charlie lay approximately 30km further north inside Ovamboland and was also parallel to the Alpha and Bravo. On completion of Operation Carrot in April it was decided to develop an additional cut-line further to the south of Bravo inside the farming area. The aforementioned cut-line was still being constructed when Operation Yahoo commenced on 14 April The new cut-line was known as Delta and lay approximately 30 km to the north of Tsumeb — it cut across farms and fences from east to west.

A yellow grader was still standing on the Delta, left abandoned by its crew. It would later on in Yahoo entice a group of insurgents stupidly so to fire a RPG rocket at in the darkness. The cut-lines together with the excellent road network in the region facilitated rapid movement by own forces for follow-up and cut-off deployments.

Enemy tracks crossing these control lines equally provided early warning of crossings and valuable tactical intelligence — how many enemies in, when; how many out, when? The farm fences were a problem when hunting and destroying insurgents at high tempo. Fast hunting was at the order of the day and the follow-up groups could not be bothered with fences; they summarily drove over these hindrances with their combat vehicles.

Koevoet became past masters at this. Good roads infrastructure in the operational zone to the south was excellent for the rapid traversing of forces to deploy, to cut off and to follow-up.

Air fields and air strips were in abundance. Helicopters could even land at farms and refuel there from previously positioned fuel drums. Here the gunships waited close by for the right moment to be dispatched and strike. Radio and telephone communications were superb in the region and could be described as one of our main force multipliers. We rather needed the enemy in the inhabited farming area, which allowed our counter-insurgency forces free hunting in the more open killing locales of the farms and the surrounding bush.

What counted in our favour was the advantage of having real time and near-real-time intelligence provided for by the local population. The intelligence system for the area was linked into a comprehensive informer scheme. The extensive network of intelligence contacts and agents were linked by the military area network and local telephone system. Such was the influence of terrain, as the neutral factor, on counter-insurgency operations in the Death Triangle.

Terrain was a constant factor that was assessed minute-by-minute, hour-by-hour, and daily. The maps were marked and updated minute-by-minute. Keeping the finger on the pulse and staying one step ahead of the enemy became the norm. From these planning and thinking exercises followed quick orders for rapid force employments and precision engagements.

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The Winter Game, which had begun on a sad note on 15 April for us, came to be fun by the 17th. Keep the Insurgents Out of the Mountains Dear readers look at a topographical map of the Death Triangle and see the rugged mountains stand out like a painful throbbing thumb. The rugged thorn-surfaced mountains are encapsulated within the folds of Tsumeb, Grootfontein and Otavi. In turn, these towns are surrounded by dense entangled thorny African bush.

The terrain conditions favoured the wily ways and means of the insurgent in a way. Rules 1 for the insurgents were to aim for the cover of the rugged mountains.

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This was the terrain best suited for the exponent of unconventional warfare. From its protective folds the enemy could strike outwards at the juicy targets presented in the surrounds. Rule 1 for the security forces was to keep the enemy out of the mountains, because it was damn difficult to hunt for them there.

Terrain the Neutral Factor What remains to be seen in the end was who had exploited the terrain the best, when it came to either fighting or evading.

The dictum was quite simple really: The one who used the terrain the best has the best fighting or evading chance… What did the terrain allow the enemy to do, what did the terrain force the enemy to do? What did the terrain allow own forces to do, what did the terrain force own forces to do? Pakistan has large oil reserves that have been recently discovered [ 20 ].

Since the recurrent nova WZ Sagittae has been impacting earth for hundreds of years, oil should have been deposited at its western terminus. The corresponding oil fields for the eastern terminus are in Baja, Mexico. The blue lines represent a tolerance on the accuracy of longitudinal location. The red sands denoted by the red circles are missing for the northeast corner of the rectangle, but the northeast corner coincides with the largest oil field in China at Heilongjiang.

Rectangular Locations for Supernova G Only three corners of the rectangle have discovered oil fields. One corner, suggesting an undiscovered oil field, is missing in the ocean south of Australia. The change in CO2 and O2 concentration in the atmosphere produced by the iron eating alga caused previously forested areas to become savannas reducing the great apes natural habitat and causing its extinction [ 21 ]. The extensive iron deposit in Zambia, Africa nearyears ago by the Monogem Ring supernova shown in Figure 6 caused extensive storms and death in southern Africa.

The planet was also cooling at the time. These factors caused the human population indicated by the red area in Figure 13 to migrate northeast into Israel which in time became part of the Fertile Crescent that supported the first cities. Human PopulationYears Ago [ 22 ].

Deserts, Oil, Red Sands, Debris Streams The realization that carbon, hydrocarbons, silicates, and iron all enter our biosphere in nova and supernova debris streams is hard to deny when considering the data presented in this work. When looking at Figure 14, it is easy to believe that the geography of the northwest corner of India was produced by an incoming supernova debris stream and the associated high velocity, atomic particles of hydrogen, helium, and carbon penetrated part of the mantle to form oil deposits.

Silicon is an element that is also abundant in an exploding star, but the particles were larger and traveling at less velocity and as a result sand formed on the surface and formed the desert in the impact area. Iron is the last abundant element formed before a star explodes and at times is mixed with the silicon to form red sand. It is probably not a coincidence that the largest sand desert in the world is associated with the limitless oil deposits of Saudi Arabia.

Varying Climate of India [ 23 ]. Supernova Puppis A with a degree declination, southern hemisphere, and a 32 degree eastern longitude for its modified northeastern terminus with a small deflection to the east is a promising candidate as the creation device of the extensive deserts and Saudi Arabian oil fields, see Tables 2 and 3 [ 13 ].

The date of impact 2, years ago is very close to the date of the fall of Babylon The major questions are: Moving deflected Focal Point of SN If any country should be interested in protecting their country from the coming phenomenon predicted by SNIT, it should be India because atomic hydrogen is already burning in their sky in the summer months. The deflections of western termini for the SN debris streams of different years are shown in Figure The motion of the northwest focal point is represented in Figure 15 by three stars: In the last two weeks of May and first week of June Europe, Asia, and the Middle East experienced one the most extraordinary heat waves in world history.

The hottest temperature for May was in Pakistan at The hotspot has repeated for three consecutive years and was moving southeast, but now it appears to be moving slowly to the northwest. As the atomic mass of the debris stream particle decreased, the northwest terminus of SN was deflected farther to the east and to the south.

As the northwest focal point moved east and south, the southwest focal point moved east and south and caused extreme melting of Antarctic sea ice in November of when it resided over the Antarctic sea ice. The good news for India is as the particle atomic mass increases in the debris stream of SNthe northwest focal point will move to the northwest. The bad news is if this happens and excessive melting of the Greenland ice is in the future when carbon particles become dominate in the debris stream.

At that time some relief of rising sea levels is possible because the Antarctic melting due to SN will cease. WZ Sagittae El Nino [ 26 ]. The tornado outbreak that holds the current record for tornadoes in one month is April This could be a sign of an El Nino event if the ocean area was not restricted to the Pacific waters west of South America in December.

The new location for the sign of the El Nino event occurs because SN has a different right ascension than the three novas that have been credited with El Nino events causing the high SSTs west of South America. This tornado outbreak became the record because SN is the strongest type supernova possible and the tornadoes occur in tornado season. An unusual tornado outbreak occurred in November that included 79 tornadoes out of tornado season.

The third tine is shown in Figure 18 and occurs as a result of SN debris stream impact. The high SSTs in Figure 18 are at lower latitudes than the pacific water surface latitudes acceptable for an El Nino event.

The tornado outbreak occurs on November 15 at a location of the focal point before the western terminus date of December 12 is reached and would be equivalent to a 27 degree longitude shift to the east from the western terminus of SN If 27 days were added to December 12 like the SN focal point was traveling east from its western terminus the date would be January 8 that misses the CAM date of WZ Sagittae of January 20 by 12 days or 12 longitude degrees.

Debris Entry Conditions The question asked by Dr. Dukes of Purdue University was: Why do the focal points or termini exist at one longitude and two north and south latitudes on the planet at a prescribed time rather than in two bands at north and south latitudes all around the planet? Some particles that satisfy the entry condition will penetrate the outer magnetic field of earth and become trapped in a magnetic bottle to form the north and south termini.

Other particles of a more powerful impact that satisfy the entry condition will come straight through and form the third time. The perpendicular entry condition exists for a short time for each day the planet resides in the debris stream. The high temperatures that existed during the death of the Saiga antelopes in lasted for nearly a month and the maximum death rate of the antelopes was concentrated into a few days noted from May 6 to 27 in Figure The 22 day hot spell indicates the period of time when earth was located in the incoming outer space debris stream from SN The calculated longitudinal location of the focal point that caused the deaths changed everyday earth was in the debris stream.

Even though a specific longitude is calculated for the focal point, the actual focusing will occur over a circular area.

The same theoretical argument applies to the packed lower average temperatures in Alaska in Figure Even though the remnant of nova WZ Sagittae and its debris stream passes over Alaska every day; a period of approximately a month, mid-November to mid-December, of the year provides the correct focusing particle conditions for the debris stream of WZ Sagittae to affect the average atmospheric temperatures of Alaska.

The incoming particle density is maximum at termini locations and minimal in the region exterior to the degree zone that does not include the debris focal point and varies in a sinusoidal fashion within the degree focal point region between the termini. The meteor was in our solar system for less than thirty minutes but left enduring marks on earth. It provided the major amount of energy to end the Wisconsin Glacitions and produced steam to end the aridity atya in Eurasia.

A major scar left by the meteor was the debris field of Figure 8 as it left the exit crater, the Black Sea basin, on its way to outer space. A particular case of interest refers to the Australian tektites dated asyears old but contained in strata dated as 24, to 16, years old, Lake Torrens Formation, or 16, to 12, years old, Motpena paleosol, [ 2728 ]. The youngest earth strata containing the tektites give the time when the tektites fell on land and impacted with a large velocity penetrating into earth strata older than the impact time.

The boundary between the mid-Holocene Alluvial Sands and the Motpena paleosol gives the minimum date of 12, years ago as the logical choice for the time of the fall of the tektites because one tektite was found at this boundary. This tektite strata date is very close to the nano-diamond meteor event noted as 12, ya. If the tektites came from deep within the moon, the composition would not be the same as surface rocks.

The mud volcanoes in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea were caused by the interstellar meteor when it connected the surface of the planet by a lava tube to the molten rock below the mantle.

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The lava flow was always to the northwest in the tube because that was the direction of travel of the meteor. The result was mud volcanoes and underground lava eruptions miles from the nearest natural volcano located at the Eurasian plate boundary [ 30 ].

A line drawn through the two mud volcano locations in Figure 20 comes very close to intersecting Tone Sap Lake in Cambodia. Cambodia with Tone Sap Lake [ 31 ]. Tone Sap Lake is a wonder in the fact that it is the largest lake in Southeast Asia. It is oblong and its major axis points toward the two mud volcano locations. The basin of the Black Sea is also oblong and its major axis generally points in the same direction.

It is proposed that these scars on earth were all left by the actions of the interstellar meteor from SN W50 whose remnant is lys across indicating the size of the star that exploded to produce the meteor [ 32 ].

The Black Sea basin is the youngest exit crater on earth and was the last major geothermal hot spot. Proof Ending Carbon Stream- wz Sagittae In reference [ 34 ] section 8 entitled Drought, The theory was presented that incoming carbon particles in a nova or supernova debris stream would cause drought when a terminus coincided with the time of year for the rainy season at a particular region.

The California drought caused by WZ Sagittae was given as an example and it ended in the winter of In previous years, the exothermic reaction of the burning carbon particles of the incoming debris stream that disassociated water molecules elevated the average temperatures at the time of the last group of blue data points shown in Figure 22 for the Alaskan region.

Inthe exothermic reaction of burning carbon entering in the WZ Sagittae debris stream was absent giving lower daily average temperatures over Alaska from mid-November to mid-December.

Excursion Alaskan Average Temperatures [ 33 ]. The decrease in average temperatures were measured in Alaska, but a similar measurement at lower western longitudes would have shown lower average temperatures at later dates but before January 20 to an area slightly east of WL due to the circular form of the area of the terminus region.