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The devaluation of rural producers Rubio, led to the growing concern over poverty issues Kay, As the United States flooded Latin American markets with food at dumping prices in order to dismantle internal production with the connivance of neoliberal governments, academics made every effort to supply documentary evidence on the New Rurality concept, which is characterized by the devalued role of agricultural activities in rural incomes and the general economies of rural areas.
The rural reaction to the abovementioned devaluation and exclusion process inherent in neoliberal policies was crucial to the rise of popular governments in the early years of the 21st Century. The evolution of the Latin American political scenario in the first decade of the third millennium corresponded with the decline of the United States' global leading role, which reached a critical point due to the food, energy, and financial crisis of Rubio, It is important to stress that China's and India's economic dynamism in the s Bustelo, exerted a strong influence on Latin America, which led to a rise in raw material prices since the s and mainly at the beginning of the current century; hence several countries reintroduced the primary-exporting model.
The rise of popular and redistributive governments has provided the possibility of channeling key resources into social expenditure and developing infrastructure Rubio, ; however, said possibility has been questioned due to the political and environmental implications of neo-extractivism Hidalgo, Nowadays, Latin American farmlands face long-established problems and obstacles derived from their participation in the global capitalist restructuring process.
Said challenges largely exceed the RTD's scope. Guillermo Almeyra put forth that the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in the Latin American rural framework, which destroy the Nature and rural way of life, are massive migration and farmland abandonment, the environmental predation caused by large mining industries, water capitalist use through large dams, and the globalization of monoculture agribusinesses.
When taking into account the core basis of the former situation shared between the Bravo River and the Patagonia, it is possible to establish a more accurate framework of the challenges faced by Latin American farmlands. According to this, the longestablished problem regarding rural poverty has its roots in migration, a basic feature of Latin American farmlands that became part of the global capital accumulation process because rural incomes precluded the social development of rural areas .
The globalization of monoculture agribusinesses, whose prototype are large companies that create green deserts so as to produce soy, along with forestry and biofuels plantations, causes the loss of food sovereignty in Latin American countries as a consequence of the profit-oriented production, a dismantling that has lasted three decades.
The promotion of mining industries and large hydroelectric power plants constitute capitalist restructuring requirements that Latin American rural areas must meet at the expense of their natural patrimony. In fact, the importance of gold, which is seen as a valuable reserve in comparison to Dollars and Euros due to their devaluation, fuses with the growing demand for the so-called rare earth metals, a source monopolized by China that is indispensable to Information and Communication Technologies, as well as to aerospace and alternative energy sectors.
Said factors led to an avalanche of transnational mining companies in charge of exploiting gold and traditional minerals and conducting prospecting studies. Large projects related to the creation of dams and aeolian energy sources are aimed at searching for a change in energy production that reduces the impacts of global warming through renewable sources and restoring the capitalist profitability that has been affected by high oil prices.
If production weakening is by definition the loss of food sovereignty and social underdevelopment means migration, the inevitable result is the environmental and institutional weakening of Latin American farmlands, constituting a red flag within the RTD's scope. It is widely known that Latin American rural areas are facing a rapid degradation of their natural resources, which results in the loss of forests, soil erosion, rivers and water body contamination, alterations in the hydrologic cycle, genetic erosion and a notorious vulnerability to the meteorological phenomena derived from climate change.
According to this perspective, the history of Latin American farmlands also encompasses an account of natural patrimony deterioration, which starts with the resource dispossession derived from the primary-exporting model in the later years of the 19th century and ends with the current reintroduction of mining and agricultural exports that was preceded by the structuralist and productivist approaches of the industrialization period that date from the 20th Century. The weakening of Latin American countryside institutions is largely reflected in the lack of governmental bodies among extensive rural territories and public institutions in extremely relevant areas, such as technical assistance.
Said weakening results from neoliberal policies whose principal aim was to dismantle state systems related to profitable production so as to gain more competitiveness and favor the agricultural exporting model.
Neoliberal policies, New Rurality, and Rural Territorial Development In order to face the aforesaid problems regarding Latin American farmlands, comprehensive definitions not included within the RTD's conceptual scope and a reconceptualization of the so-called New Rurality are required. Latin American sociologists, economists, and geographers have shown preference to the concept of New Rurality over Neoliberal Rurality.
This has been the case despite they are referring to the elements that explain the situation of Latin American farmlands amid neoliberal globalization, particularly when inspecting those elements from a global, historical, and structural perspective. The aforesaid preference shows the blurring of metanarratives derived from the weakening of Latin American critical thinking Altamirano et al. For this reason, the so-called New Rurality constitutes a sort of watershed that was imported from Europe Rojas, for the classification of different conceptual twists that are not consistently explained due to the rejection of more comprehensive theoretical categorizations.
For instance, the conceptualization of neoliberal globalization does not depict it as a capitalist phase that leads to changes in urban and rural areas, the disjointed subordination of agriculture to industry, and alterations in rural society among which the most notable is deagriculturalization that are reflected in migration increases and the development of non-agricultural income sources.
It is important to stress that such characteristics clearly depict the agribusiness export predominance in neoliberal globalization. On the other hand, it can be stated that: The New Rurality concept is mainly supported by the fact that: These statements cannot be empirically refuted; they are the core basis of the socalled New Rurality in addition to the argument of the alleged dissolution of the borders between rural and urban areas.
However, what is not taken into account is the fact that agriculture's role in rural development has lost importance since the s due to the weakening of rural economies resulting from trade liberalization policies.
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Rural producers were forced to develop non-agricultural income sources, since agrarian production could not guarantee the successful development of rural families in an adverse context. Moreover, neoliberal governments contributed to the relative loss of the connection between agrarian incomes and the general economies of rural areas by prioritizing funds for household expenses over production subsidies. The abovementioned authors state three additional facts through which New Rurality's critical deficit can be distinguished: It must be stressed that the fact that markets are controlled by a reduced number of agribusinesses constitutes not only a flaw in markets, but also a basic feature of the neoliberal agricultural exporting model Rubio, Lastly, the starring role of local governing bodies does not lead to democracy strengthening unless it promotes citizen interests and effective participation.
Furthermore, if such a role is not aimed at effectively decentralizing financial resources and authorities, it can turn into a mechanism through which national governing bodies will run away from their responsibilities.
The fact that rural cultures are transformed by leaps and bounds and that globalization reaches, for better or for worse, not only economies but also cultures is evidently related to migration, which has proliferated since the s. Therefore, what is depicted herein is a basic characteristic of neoliberal rurality rather than an innovative rurality. On the basis of said premise - and making no reference to the serious environmental deterioration derived from mining - it is important to stress that the empirical deployment of environmental awareness still needs to be proved, especially when taking into account soy production in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, along with the intensive use of pesticides in agricultural export plantations.
To sum up, what is actually comprised in the New Rurality concept is nothing but a group of changes derived from neoliberal reforms that have come into force since the s. The RTD's approach synthesizes and formalizes a consensus among multilateral organizations on the need to provide local areas with a more leading role by means of a more comprehensive view of rural society based on territories. However, it does not elucidate the tendencies derived from the capitalist restructuring process -for it is not determined to do so.
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Therefore, rural areas face a contradictory logic; on the one hand, governments agree on the RTD's approach regarding the decentralization and multifunctionality of rural areas, local strategies and social participation planning, social coordination and joint responsibility promotion, citizenship development, and empowerment.
On the other hand, said governments also agree that companies put pressure on communities to promote the creation of resorts, large mining industries, and large hydrologic or aeolian energy sources within their territory. As a matter of fact, the RTD's approach entails relevant sustainability factors, such as environmental resources management and environmental services market development.
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