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An example of an ad hominem argument is the following: Accordingly, ad hominem arguments are a type of an informal logical fallacy, meaning that there is. Especially people-Ad Hominem/ aren't these tactics creating This one's clearly a bit dated, but is a really good example of one of the many. Aquino's is now formally an “ad hominem presidency” – a and BS (which stands for Benigno Simeon, and needs no definition). Learning The expiry date of this ad hominem presidency is up. [email protected]
Deploying the service of crony schools and crony corporations to badmouth opponents and mount phony civil-society actions. And now he is considered by almost everyone as the frontrunner in the vice-presidential race in the May elections. And there is talk of his inevitable rise to the presidency, like the scions of former Presidents in other Asian countries.
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If tried, this could provoke serious political turmoil and upheaval. The big problem is that Marcos is a more astute politician and better leader than BS Aquino. It could be a party which no one will bother to attend.
The only ones he can count on are the usual suspects — oligarchs, cronies, and political friends who are already feeding at the trough.
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They will not march with him. Aquino should remember, too, that his mother, President Cory Aquino, tried to use people power against the Philippine Senate during its vote on the renewal of the Philippines-US military bases treaty.
If BS marches to prevent the proclamation of Bongbong, he will most likely march alone. Three women were interviewed from the message boards, three women from Usenet, and only one woman from chat. Although active participation of women in the three discussion spaces was observed, they were reluctant to be interviewed.
The range of the age of participants, however, was wide; their ages ranged from 18 to Chat participants were on average younger than the other two groups, and Usenet participants on average were older than the other two groups. The message board participants' average age was 34, Usenet participants' 41, and chat participants' This makes empirical sense given that Usenet is the oldest of the three discussion space types, and thus may have an older user base, while chat tends to be popular among younger people.
In order to generate a breadth of responses, a sizable number of interviews were needed. Using Krueger's guidelines from focus groups, twenty-five interviews per discussion space type was set as the ideal number. This number should provide a range of people and perspectives from which to analyze.
All participants signed an electronic consent form, and were Canadian or from the United States or lived abroad but had U.
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All interviews were conducted over the Internet, using e-mail, instant messaging programs, or a chat space established as part of the online teaching tool, Blackboard.
There are advantages and disadvantages to conducting interviews online. One distinct advantage of doing the interview online was that it enabled an instant transcript of the interview.
A second advantage is that it enabled people to respond to questions in the medium in which they participate for political talk. Thus, the interviews were conducted in a medium in which they are arguably comfortable communicating. A disadvantage was that the interview participants had to type their responses, which for most would be slower then giving verbal responses.
As a result, participants may not have provided as much detail and justification for their responses as would have been the case if the interviews were conducted in person. Before moving to the findings, brief note should be taken of the format of the reporting of the interviews. Unless there were major problems with readability of the quotations, they are reprinted as is, typos and all. Their punctuation choices, typing errors, and spelling mistakes give texture and richness to the interviews.
In order to keep track of the interviews, they have been labeled by the discussion space they were recruited from and a unique identifying number. At the end of a quotation is a notation, such as [Board03]. These serve as referents to the actual interview. Finally, to preserve the anonymity of the people interviewed, any identifying characteristics, including handles, have been altered.
In some cases, quotations include the handle names. Made-up, but similar handles were created to preserve anonymity while communicating to readers something of the online persona. Findings The Homophily Perspective In order for the homophily perspective to be supported, one would expect participants in the political discussion spaces to articulate both a desire for and an experience of similarity to others with whom they talk online. One might expect to see during the course of the interview that participants wanted to find others who held similar thoughts or values, and that they appreciated and enjoyed hearing opinions and views that were similar to their own.
Logical fallacies: examples of ad hominem
This was not the case. Only rarely did interview participants in their narratives of what they liked about talking politics online express perceptions consistent with the homophily perspective. The few who did express such sentiments indicated that they appreciated finding others who shared similar perspectives online, because the people they interacted with offline they perceived to be different from themselves.
For example, one of my interview subjects, who participated on Usenet and who lived in Alabama, had this to say about why he liked talking online: Living in Alabama means living in a world where certain prejudices are completely ingrained into the culture. In his offline interactions, he sensed that he held different opinions and values on issues in the political realm.
In order to get along, he must keep hidden his own views from his neighbors. To engage in political conversation with people who he believed would disagree with him would upset the equilibrium that strangers and acquaintances strive for in first encounters Argyle, The other context in which the homophily perspective was expressed occurred in relationship to benefits received from talking with others of the same perspective.
As illustration, one interview participant explained that: Thus, online, people can hear others articulate sentiments similar to their own, and can gather arguments and evidence to reinforce their own positions. In their offline worlds, if they perceive themselves to have a different set of opinions on a political subject from those around them, they can go online and find support.
They can find reassurance, for example, that they are not alone in their opinion. There were interview participants who expressed experiencing or desiring to experience people similar to themselves and perspectives similar to their own; however, many more people and many more statements were made concerning the online, political talk experience that are suggestive of the diversity perspective. This is addressed next. The Diversity Perspective If one were to expect support for the diversity perspective, one might anticipate hearing the interview participants report that they encounter people who are different from themselves and hear opinions that are unlike their own.
Overwhelmingly, the people interviewed for this research expressed those two themes. The comments of many interviewees indicated that they experienced the online political talk environment as one in which diverse people participated and diverse perspectives were voiced.
Interview participants explained that they liked talking politics online because it enabled them to have access to a public, a heterogeneous group of people available at any time and any day of the week.
The first is that the people with whom they talked are from around the world or at least around the country, and as a result are different from them. The second sense is that the people with whom they talk express a broad range of opinions and information on political matters.
With respect to the first sense of diversity, the interview participants found it novel and appealing that the people online with whom they talk live across the country and the globe. When they talked politics online, they sensed that they were conversing with people from disparate social and demographic backgrounds. The second sense of diversity is the range of opinions expressed.
Not only did the interview participants perceive the people online to be diverse, but also the opinions expressed are regarded as varied. One participant explained this perception succinctly: Given the broad range of opinions expressed, they do find people whose views mirror their own.
One interview participant said of online political talk: At the same time, the people I interviewed expressly enjoyed the ability to encounter perspectives other than their own. People offered statements such as these: I would never run into these people in real life, and if I did, they wouldn't be open to telling me what I think. It shows everyone's point of view. Online, given the public, diverse quality of the discussion, people are exposed to a range of opinions.
Alongside the diversity of people and opinions, there is another sense in which the online discussions are public.
There is an audience, an often large but unseen body of people who read the messages posted in these online discussion spaces. She felt the public quality of the discussion — that she had an audience, a common space to share her opinions — is adesirable feature of online talk. Another interviewee who spent time on Yahoo's chat space also mentioned the public, heterogeneous quality of Internet political talk. When asked what he liked about talking in the chat space he wrote: What else do you like about chatting in the politics lobby?
Is there anything else you like? Consequences The interview transcripts also suggest a number of consequences that emerge out of possibility to talk with diverse people who hold a range of opinions. As mentioned in the literature review, scholars have raised concerns about the consequences of political discussion online.
In this section, consequences are outlined as articulated by those who use political discussion spaces. What became evident in the analysis of the interviews was that there were a number of positive consequences articulated by interviewees. People felt that they learned from those with whom they talked. They learned about political topics of which they knew little before, or they gained richer, deeper insight about an issue on which they were already well-versed.
They discovered how they felt on political subjects, and sometimes they even changed their opinions on an issue. There also were some negative consequences. The most prominent consequence was that they were exposed to opinions and views that were highly problematic to them, views that they labeled racist, backwards, or, simply, wrong.
Learning about Political Topics, One's Own Views, and Others' Views Some enjoyed talking online because they gained new information on political subjects. One participant in Yahoo's message boards explained it this way: One of the norms on Usenet and on message boards is to include hyperlinks to news articles or other sites that serve as evidence to bolster their arguments.
A person may challenge a claim by asking for a link to information to support it. This creates an environment in which those who participate in a debate as well as those who simply read it can get additional information on a subject. Thus, there is information exchange occurring in the discussion spaces, findings in line with those of Hill and Hughes The exchange of opinion, which people indicate they enjoy, is intermixed with facts, statistics, personal anecdotes, and other types of information that provide people with evidence and information to expand their understanding of an event or an issue.
Such information can also serve as an additional tool for arguments that participants wish to make. People's living in different media markets, living closer to particular events and so having first-hand knowledge, and having knowledge about specific issues on which they are passionate, means that a range of topics, issues, and information is expressed.
During the course of a conversation, a person may introduce evidence from personal experience or stories that do not make it to the level of attention in the U. Such personal experiences or information shared through these online, informal channels can constitute another stream of information that discussants may factor into their opinions on an issue.
Another consequence is that participants can gain a sense of public opinion. They realize that the public does not speak in one voice, but in multiple voices from an array of perspectives.
They can witness this first-hand by visiting an online discussion space such as Yahoo's chat. Because the online discussion space overcomes geographical distances and draws together people with divergent political opinions and ideologies, it enables people to see a range of opinions and issues on others' minds.
If a person is moved to express an opinion on an issue, they must figure out what it is that they are going to say. This requires them to consider their own opinions and the values that underlie those opinions.
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