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Find a Veneto girlfriend or lover, or just have fun flirting online with single girls. The Venetian independence referendum of was an unofficial, non-binding. Political career Luca Zaia joined Liga Veneta–Lega Nord in the early s, after "Verona, il referendum per l'indipendenza del Veneto macina voti online: .. Background The referendum date was announced in April by President of. The Constitutional Court ruled that referendum out as contrary to the . Precursors of the present-day Venetist movement date back to before World War II and .. organised ordendelsantosepulcro.info, an online independence referendum, with no official .. "IL SONDAGGIO Quasi 6 su 10 per l'indipendenza del Veneto - Regione - Il.
Other historians links Venetic origins with Celts. In the 7th—6th centuries BC the local populations of Veneto entered into contact with the Etruscans and the Greeks. Venetic culture reached a high point during the 4th century BC. These ancient Veneti spoke Venetican Indo-European language akin to, but distinct from Latin and the other Italic languages.
Meanwhile, the Veneti prospered through their trade in amber and breeding of horses. Over time, the Veneti began to adopt the dress and certain other customs of their Celtic neighbours. The Tetrarchs were the four co-rulers who governed the Roman Empire as long as Diocletian 's reform lasted. Here they are portrayed embracing, in a posture of harmony, in a porphyry sculpture dating from the 4th century, produced in Anatolialocated today on a corner of St Mark's Basilica in Venice.
Roman period During the 3rd century BC, the Venetitogether with the Cenomani Celts on their western border, sided with the Romansas Rome expanded and struggled against the Insubres and Boii Celts. From then on, Roman influence over the area increased. In BC 1, more colonising families were sent by Rome to Aquileia.
The Roman Republic gradually transformed its alliance with the Veneti into a relationship of dominance. After the 91 BC Italic rebellion, the cities of the Veneti, together with the rest of Transpadania, were granted partial rights of Roman citizenship according to the Lex Pompeia de Transpadanis.
Between 8 and 6 BC, Augustus reorganized Italia into 11 regions. Aquileia, although not officially the capital was the chief municipium of the region. By the end of the 1st century AD Latin had displaced the original Venetic language. It was the beginning of many barbarian invasions. Marcus Aurelius retaining the regions of Italia, superimposed another layer of administration by ascribing Regions X and XI to the district of Transpadana under a iuridicus.
The end of the 3rd c. Venetia et Histria remained one of the 16 Provinces of Italy in the 5th century when both Alaric the Goth and then Attila and the Huns devastated the area. Attila laid siege to Aquileia and turned it into a ruin in AD.
Many of the mainland inhabitants sought protection in the nearby lagoons which would become Grado in the east and Venice more to the west.
On the heels of the Huns came the Ostrogoths who not only invaded, but also settled down in the region, especially near Treviso where the penultimate king Totila was born. An Exarch was established at Ravenna while a military tribune was set up in Oderzo. Greek-Byzantine rule did not last long. These invaders subdivided the territory of Venetia into numerous feuds ruled by Germanic dukes and counts, essentially creating the division of Veneto from Friuli.
The invasion provoked another wave of migration from the mainland to the Byzantine controlled coast and islands. A reminder of Lombard rule can be seen in the place names beginning with the word Farra. The Horses of Saint Markbrought as loot from Constantinople in Middle Ages By the middle of the 8th century, the Franks had assumed political control of the region and the mainland of Veneto became part of the Carolingian Empire.
Though politically dominant, these Germanic invaders were gradually absorbed into the Venetian population over the centuries. Under his tumultuous reign, the March of Friuli was absorbed into the March of Verona so that Verona's territory contained a large portion of Roman Venetia. In the 10th century, the mainland of Veneto, after suffering raids from the Magyars and the Slavswas incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, the communes of the mainland grew in power and wealth.
The Second Treaty of Constance in confirmed the Peace of Venice of in which the cities agreed to remain part of the Empire as long as their jurisdiction over their own territories was not infringed upon.
Venetian independence referendum - Wikipedia
The league was dissolved at the death of Emperor Frederick II in This period also witnessed the founding of the second oldest university in Italy, the University of Padua founded in Around this time, Padua also served as home to St. Anthonythe beloved Saint called simply "il Santo" "the Saint" by the inhabitants of the town.
Venetian Republic An 18th-century view of Venice by Canaletto.
As the barbarians were interested in the wealth of the mainland, part of the Venetian population sought refuge on some of the isolated and unoccupied islands in the lagoon, from which the city of Venetiae or Venice was born.
After a period of Byzantine domination in 8th century, Venice became an independent maritime Republic ruled by its elected doge. The Republic became a commercial superpower and its influence lasted through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
In fact, the Venetian Republic enjoyed years of uninterrupted influence throughout the Mediterranean. From the 13th to 17th centuries, it held the island of Crete and from the midth to midth century, the island of Cyprus. Venetian mainland holdings led to Venetian involvement in European and in particular, Italian politics.
Cities had to be fortified, two impressive examples are Nafplio in Peloponese and Palmanova in Friuli. The wise rule and prosperity brought by the "Serenissima" most serene republic made the cities of the terra firma willing subjects.
Eastern Islands served as useful ports for Venetian shipping. However, as the Ottoman Empire grew more powerful and aggressive, Venice was often put on the defensive. Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean and the discoveries of sea routes to Asia around Africa and of the Americas had a debilitating effect on the Venetian economy. InNapoleon invaded the territory of the Venetian Republic. Overwhelmed by more powerful forces, Doge Ludovico Manin resigned and retired to his villa at Passariano in Friuli and the thousand year old Republic disappeared as an independent state.
This proved very unpopular in the mainland cities where sympathies were strong with the Republic of Venice. The territory soon reverted to Napoleon in Then in —, it was conquered by Napoleon 's armies and included in the Kingdom of Italy. Duringthe region revolted against the French-Italian rule, supporting the advancing Austrian troops during the War of the Fifth Coalition.
It was mainly a peasant revolt, less organised than the nearby Andreas Hofer 's revolt, while hurban national guard troops fought on the French-Italian side. It asked to be annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia to form an Italian confederation against Austria, then using the Italian tricolour in its flag, but, after the other Italian states left the war May and Sardinia surrendered Augustthen MarchVenetia stood alone.
The proposal, regarding to Veneto alone, has more recently gained the support of Liga Veneta, the Government of Venetoand the majority of the Regional Council of Venetowhich endorsed a bill aimed at organising the referendum in Although it usually refers to the whole Venetian autonomist movement, the term "Venetism" is sometimes used to identify specifically culture-oriented Venetists, hardline Venetists or those Venetists who refuse the concept of Padaniaa proposed country by Lega Nordof which Liga Veneta the most successful Venetist party so far is the "national" section in Veneto.
Alberto Gardin, a pro-independence publisher who supports the boycott of Italian elections, offers another interpretation by considering "Venetism" a "partisan concept, that is part of the Italian political system Venetists, as Socialists, Communists, the PD or the PdLetc.
After defeating the Republic of Genoa in a series of warsit became the most powerful Mediterranean maritime power and, at its height, extended its rule from large parts of the Po Valley to the coastal regions and islands of present-day SloveniaCroatiaBosnia and HerzegovinaMontenegroAlbania and Greece. Venice was a leading power of the Western world in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Inafter a long decline, through the Treaty of Campo FormioNapoleon traded what remained to the Republic to Austria in exchange of other lands. Manin, who opposed the proposed unification by some Venetians with the Kingdom of Sardiniaresigned but returned to lead again the opposition against Vienna in In the Italian unification process, the conflict is known as Third War of Independence.
Austria refused to give Venetia directly to Italy because the Austrians had crushed the Italians during the war, defeating the Italians on land during the Battle of Custoza 24 June and on sea during the Battle of Lissa 20 July.
Giuseppe Garibaldi 's Hunters of the Alps had some success against the Austrians at the Battle of Bezzecca 21 July but the Italian government ordered Garibaldi to withdraw when Prussia and Austria concluded an armistice.
2014 Venetian independence referendum
The same point was repeated in the Treaty of Vienna 12 Octoberachieved through the mediation of France. According to the treaty, France ceded Venetia to Italy "under the reservation of the consent of the people duly consulted". It is unclear whether there would have been another choice from becoming Italian, nor the treaty was more precise on how to consult the people. Venetia was already under Italian control after the French government renounced to it on 19 October.
The Kingdom of Italy adopted Italian as official language. Venetians, similarly to several other regional communities, largely rejected that and continued to use their own Venetian languageoften dubbed as dialect. Linguistic nationalism started soon to be part of Venetian culture and, during the last decades of the 19th century, there were also some revolts against Southern Italian bureaucrats.
After its incorpotation to Italy, Venetia was so poor that millions of Venetians had to emigrate toward the Americas, especially Brazil and Argentina nationalists claim that three millions left their homeland from andwithout losing their national heritage so that, even today, many Venetian descendants in Latin America, most notably in Rio Grande do Sulspeak Venetian as their mother tongue.
In a Venetian Socialist and Republican newspaper, La Riscossa, espoused the need for a "united elective governorate with autonomous and competent technical and administrative organs" as an alternative to the "central political rule"  Guido Bergamo, Republican deputy elected in Veneto, wrote that "the Venetian problem is so acute that from today on we will preach the rebellion of Venetians.
Citizens, let's not pay taxes, not recognise the central government in Rome, chase away prefects, retain the money from direct taxes in Veneto". Lion of Saint Mark won 6. Hence, the proposals by some groups of unifying Veneto with the two regions cited above or with Trentino alone  or giving also Veneto an autonomous statute. Venetist ideas made a comeback in the s, when the Venetian Regionalist Autonomous Movement MARV campaigned for the institution of the ordinary regions including Venetoprefigured by the Italian Constitution.
Since the s Veneto experienced a dramatic economic boom thanks to a new production model based on small enterprises. The high burden of taxes and bureaucracy, associated with the increasing frustration with the inefficient and overstaffed Italian government in Rome, that continued to channel Northern taxes as massive development aid to the corrupt and backward Southern regions, was the key element, along with linguistic and historical claims, that led to the formation of Liga Veneta LV in January European integration was seen as an opportunity to give back to Veneto its autonomy.
In Bisaglia tellingly declared that "Veneto would be mature for a federalist state, but this state, centralist and bureucratic [as it is], will never concede autonomy to my region". The LV, whose leader in the s and early s was Franco Rocchettamade its main electoral debut in the general electionwhen it garnered 4. The party suffered many splits in its first decade of life and became a large political force only after its federation with other regional leagues, notably including Umberto Bossi 's Lega Lombardawhich resulted in Lega Nord LN in