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The earliest known events date back to BC. Between the years of and the Sudan was ruled primarily by Great Britain. The present boundaries of. The Gerontologist, Volume 56, Issue 6, 1 December , Pages Ageism, Age stereotypes, Causes of ageism, Turkey, Folklore, Grounded Theory .. He was reputedly married in a lifelong and monogamous relationship, though Different trends in colorectal cancer mortality between age groups in. before the conference in the summer of But I am glad in Russia, and how they reappear in present-day internet folklore, especially humour. conspiracy theories date back to the first years of the twenty-first century, it is trends. Véronique Campion-Vincent highlights the shift “from evil others to.
Innocent bystanders from both north and south have lost their liberty and even their lives for attempting to disagree with the government's harsh interpretation of Islamic rule. Its landscapes include rocky desert, savanna grasslandsand mountainous rain-land. Its most important physical feature is the Nile River, which traverses the entire length of the country.
The Sudan has a population of approximately 25 million, with almost distinct ethnic or tribal groups. The country remains predominantly rural, but towns have expanded rapidly since the Sudan gained its independence from Britain in Many other languages continue to be used in the home.
At Independence, it was estimated that one hundred distinct languages were spoken in the country. Today, all educated people speak the local or colloquial form of Arabic—the language of government, schools, and of most northern Sudanese.
In the south and west, English is spoken alongside the variety of indigenous languages, of which Dinka is the most widespread. It continues to be passed on orally, at least in the countryside. Stories center on human rather than animal or supernatural themes. A favorite character in Muslim Sudan is Fatima the Beautiful. She outwits a variety of male relatives and rivals in a series of amazing feats. She usually ends up marrying the man of her choice, and often vindicates her whole family as well.
Umm Ba'ula, the mother of bogeys, is a supernatural figure in warning stories told to small children. She bears a large basket for carrying away disobedient children. Islam was introduced to the northern Sudan by Arab traders in the seventh century AD.
Islam coexisted for many centuries with an earlier branch of Christianity, though Islam ultimately absorbed it. Many peoples, particularly in southern and western Sudan, are not Muslim. Some are Christian, and others continue to practice indigenous beliefs. In Muslim areas, the celebrations at the end of the fasting month of Ramadan and to mark God's sparing of Ishmael the Eid of Sacrifice are most important. They are marked with special foods, new clothes, and family visits.
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The birthday of the Prophet the Moulid is also celebrated. In Christian areas, the major holidays are also religious events. The day independence was gained from Britain is officially recognized on January 1. It is routinely performed on both girls and boys between the ages of four and eight.
Female circumcision is often referred to by outsiders as "female genital mutilation" and is becoming an international human rights issue. After circumcision, gender segregation becomes marked. Young girls help their mothers and aunts with domestic chores and childcare.
Young boys spend more time with male peers and enjoy a greater freedom. Marriage is celebrated with great ritual even in poor neighborhoods. It is at least partly arranged, seen as an alliance between families rather than simply between two individuals. Payment of bride-price by the groom's family to the bride's family is an essential part of the marriage process.
Greetings are warm and often effusive. Accompanied by handshaking, the Arabic greeting Izeyik is exchanged, followed by inquiries about each other's health, Qway-seen? When greeting a man outside her own family, a woman is expected to keep her eyes down. In public, a woman generally assumes a more modest manner than within her home. The Western concept of dating is virtually unknown in Muslim parts of Sudan. In the rural areas of the north, the mud-baked flat-roofed houses remain cool even in the hottest temperatures.
In the south, conical grass huts provide warmth and safety from heavy rains and more variable climates. In towns and cities, housing ranges from European-style villas to make-shift huts and lean-tos rakuba. Large families are universally desired. Women's roles are primarily those of homemaker and mother.
An emphasis on male offspring and the male line is found throughout the country. Families are overwhelmingly patrilineal tracing descent through the paternal line and patriarchal ruled by men. While nuclear families husband, wife, and children are becoming common, extended families are still found and are often polygynous with more than one wife.
With the imposition of the Shari'a Islamic lawpatrilineal, patriarchal families and increasingly limited women's roles are the trend of the s.
Elsewhere they prefer traditional dress: Laborers wear baggy pants sirwal covered by a thigh-length tunic ragi. Women in public today are bound to wear Islamic dress.
For much of the twentieth century, this was simply a foot 9-meter length of material tob wound around their body. Today it also includes an Islamic shawl hijab pulled over the head, and may include a sort of heavy overcoat chadur common for women in Iran.
In the privacy of their own homes, women simply wear light dresses. These are eaten with various types of stew, beans, lentils, and salads. Sheep is the favorite meat. Meals are eaten communally and by hand from a round tray on which various bowls of food are surrounded by breads used for dipping. Meals are segregated by gender. Thus, the interpersonal view is arguably linked to the sociocultural view, with the difference being a focus on the source of variation in ageism interpersonal view as opposed to a focus on root causes themselves sociocultural view.
Evidence for this functional explanation for social exclusion abounds within the animal kingdom.
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Evolutionary theories of ageism seek to explain bias against older adults as a function of mortality salience, reasoning that the innate human tendency to fear death leads individuals to avoid and discriminate against individuals who are reminiscent of death i.
Individual-level theories, such as TMT Greenberg et al. Thus, it can be seen that, as with the sociocultural and interpersonal views, both individual-level and evolutionary theories of ageism are linked, with differences again being driven by theoretical focus, with individual-level theories focusing on source of variation, and evolutionary theories emphasizing root causes themselves.
Contrasting Theoretical Causes of Ageism From the preceding discussion, it can be seen that there are two overarching theoretical approaches as to the root cause of ageism, with one approach suggesting that ageism is rooted in an intraindividual and evolutionary fear of death, and a countervailing approach suggesting that ageism is rooted in interindividual sociocultural devaluation of the elder in modern society. As documented earlier, both the interpersonally derived sociocultural and intraindividually derived evolutionary views have found some support within the psychological literature, thereby leading to the question as to which of these is more theoretically sound.
On the one hand, proponents of the sociocultural view point to generally more positive practices toward older adults in traditional societies and the diminished role of tribal elders in modern societies; on the other hand, proponents of the evolutionary view are buttressed by the existence for similarly age-discriminatory practices in the animal kingdom and evidence documenting the lack of in-group bias by older and middle-aged adults when confronted with older targets.
In essence, the ubiquitous debate on nature the evolutionary view versus nurture the sociocultural view holds true when it comes to the roots of ageism, with proponents of both sides showing evidence in support of their respective arguments. However, findings regarding the prevalence of ageism across contemporary cultures do not address the question we pose because any such samples would inevitably come from industrialized societies.
Nor is an approach examining practices in preliterate societies fully adequate because behaviors toward the aged can be confounded by third causes unrelated to ageist attitudes. For example, abandonment of elders by hunter-gatherer societies may reflect necessity and not ageist attitudes. Similarly, elders in positions as advisors do not necessarily imply that attitudes toward them are not discriminatory.
In fact, they may reflect the opposite because prejudice can be alternatively hostile negative attitudes and stereotypes or benevolent patronizing attitudes and stereotypes; Fiske et al.
Sudanese - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage
In other words, the very practice of conferring advisor or chief status based upon age may itself be considered ageist because the pigeonholing of older adults into a select few roles, regardless of role status, may alternatively be viewed as a positive honoring the aged or a negative thing restricting the aged to hold only certain positions, regardless of individual differences in ability and desire.
We examine the language used to describe older adults in a society preceding or at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, and with both contemporary and traditional parallels, in order to confirm the continuity of such cognitions in that society. Thus, we are able to examine whether the notion that ageism is a sociocultural product of the Industrial Revolution is supported, within the confines of one particular society.
Here, we chose to examine Ottoman Turkish Anatolian society because Turkish society has continuously existed since the third century B. Anatolia took various forms over successive empires across the centuries, from the inception of the Byzantine empire in the s, to the establishment of the Ottoman empire in the s, and up to the modern Turkish republic established by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in ; at its zenith, the society of Ottoman Turks bordered an area of over 12 million square miles, stretching all the way west up to Vienna Seydi, The society of Ottoman Turkey thereby presents a case where the language of the era may be examined in the centuries preceding, immediately after, and post-Industrial Revolution.
Methods Analytical Approach We employed a Grounded Theory method of analysis in order to examine the folklore detailed below. As defined by Charmazp. The method involves coding the data, deriving categories from codes, and having the theory emerge after data are saturated; the point of saturation is reached when adding further observations yields no additional and unique insight Charmaz,