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BUNDAHIŠN – Encyclopaedia Iranica

Most of the chapters of the compendium date to the 8th and 9th centuries. is available here and publically accesible (free to read online). In at Surat Haug obtained the manuscript H6, dated Broach (Bharūch) A.D. In Henning's words, “There is no doubt that the author of the Bundahishn. We have taken the best parts of a social networking site, and an online dating site to create a one of a kind experience for our members. Take advantage.

The Pahlavi version, however, displaces some of the lands to the west of Iran, within the experience of the authors. It is no longer possible to distinguish entirely between original material and later accretions, whether they be single glosses or whole sections. The contents of chapters without headings are given in English only.

On the inequality of beings. The independence of earth, water, and plants from effort and rest. Liber Pehlevicus, Copenhagen, Abhandlungen zur Mythologie und Sagengeschichte des alten Iran, ed. West, The Bundahish, Pahlavi Texts, pt.

Unvalla, The Pahlavi Bundehesh, Bombay, AnklesariaTehran, n. Ichap. Idem, Texte zum mazdayasnischen Kalender, Uppsala,pp. He shouted to Jeh thus: The form of the evil spirit was a log-like lizard's vazak body, and he appeared a young man of fifteen years to Jeh, and that brought the thoughts of Jeh to him.

Afterwards, the evil spirit, with the confederate demons, went towards the luminaries, and he saw the sky; and he led them up, fraught with malicious intentions. He stood upon one-third of the inside of the sky, and he sprang, like a snake, out of the sky down to the earth. In the month Frawardin and the day Ohrmazd he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was as shattered and frightened by him, as a sheep by a wolf.

He came on to the water which was arranged below the earth, and then the middle of this earth was pierced and entered by him. Afterwards, he came to the vegetation, then to the ox, then to Gayomard, and then he came to fire; so, just like a fly, he rushed out upon the whole creation; and he made the world quite as injured and dark at midday as though it were in dark night. And noxious creatures were diffused by him over the earth, biting and venomous, such as the snake, scorpion, frog kalvakand lizard vazakso that not so much as the point of a needle remained free from noxious creatures.

And blight was diffused by him over the vegetation, and it withered away immediately. And avarice, want, pain, hunger, disease, lust, and lethargy were diffused by him abroad upon the ox and Gayomard. Before his coming to the ox, Ohrmazd ground up the healing fruit, which some call 'binak,' small in water openly before its eyes, so that its damage and discomfort from the calamity zanishn might be less; and when it became at the same time lean and ill, as its breath went forth and it passed away, the ox also spoke thus: And before his coming to Gayomard, Ohrmazd brought forth a sweat upon Gayomard, so long as he might recite a prayer vaj of one stanza vichast ; moreover, Ohrmazd formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, radiant and tall.

When Gayomard issued from the sweat he saw the world dark as night, and the earth as though not a needle's point remained free from noxious creatures; the celestial sphere was in revolution, and the sun and moon remained in motion: And the evil spirit thought that the creatures of Ohrmazd were all rendered useless except Gayomard; and Astwihad with a thousand demons, causers of death, were let forth by him on Gayomard.

But his appointed time had not come, and he Astwihad obtained no means of noosing avizidano him; as it is said that, when the opposition of the evil spirit came, the period of the life and rule of Gayomard was appointed for thirty years. After the coming of the adversary he lived thirty years, and Gayomard spoke thus: And, afterwards, he the evil spirit came to fire, and he mingled smoke and darkness with it. The planets, with many demons, dashed against the celestial sphere, and they mixed the constellations; and the whole creation was as disfigured as though fire disfigured every place and smoke arose over it.

And ninety days and nights the heavenly angels were contending in the world with the confederate demons of the evil spirit, and hurled them confounded to hell; and the rampart of the sky was formed so that the adversary should not be able to mingle with it.

Hell is in the middle of the earth; there where the evil spirit pierced the earth and rushed in upon it, as all the possessions of the world were changing into duality, and persecution, contention, and mingling of high and low became manifest. This also is said, that when the primeval ox passed away it fell to the right hand, and Gayomard afterwards, when he passed away, to the left hand.

Goshorun, as the soul of the primeval ox came out from the body of the ox, stood up before the ox and cried to Ohrmazd, as much as a thousand men when they sustain a cry at one time, thus: Where is the man of whom it was said by thee thus: I will produce him, so that he may preach carefulness? Forth Goshorun walked to the star station payak and cried in the same manner, and forth to the moon station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the sun station, and then the guardian spirit of Zartosht was exhibited to her, and Ohrmazd said thus: Contented became the spirit Goshorun, and assented thus: Seven chieftains of the planets have come unto the seven chieftains of the constellations, as the planet Mercury Tir unto Tishtar, the planet Mars Warharan unto Haptoring, the planet Jupiter Ohrmazd unto Vanand, the planet Venus Anahid unto Sataves, the planet Saturn Kevan unto the great one of the middle of the sky, Gochihr and the thievish dujgun Mushpar, provided with tails, unto the sun and moon and stars.

The sun has attached Mushpar to its own radiance by mutual agreement, so that he may be less able to do harm vinas. Of Mount Alburz it is declared, that around the world and Mount Terak, which is the middle of the world, the revolution of the sun is like a moat around the world; it turns back in a circuit owing to the enclosure var of Mount Alburz around Terak.

As it is said that it is the Terak of Alburz from behind which my sun and moon and stars return again. For there are a hundred and eighty apertures rojin in the east, and a hundred and eighty in the west, through Alburz; and the sun, every day, comes in through an aperture, and goes out through an aperture; and the whole connection and motion of the moon and constellations and planets is with it: And twice in every year the day and night are equal, for on the original attack, when it the sun went forth from its first degree khurdakthe day and night were equal, it was the season of spring; when it arrives at the first degree of Kalachang Cancer the time of day is greatest, it is the beginning of summer; when it arrives at the sign khurdak Tarachuk Libra the day and night are equal, it is the beginning of autumn; when it arrives at the sign Vahik Capricorn the night is a maximum, it is the beginning of winter; and when it arrives at Varak Aries the night and day have again become equal, as when it went forth from Varak.

So that when it comes back to Varak, in three hundred and sixty days and the five Gatha days, it goes in and comes out through one and the same aperture; the aperture is not mentioned, for if it had been mentioned the demons would have known the secret, and been able to introduce disaster. From there where the sun comes on on the longest day to where it comes on on the shortest day is the east region Sawahi; from there where it comes on on the shortest day to where it goes off on the shortest day is the direction of the south regions Fradadhafshu and Widadhafshu; from there where it goes in on the shortest day to where it goes in on the longest day is the west region Arezahi; from there where it comes in on the longest day to there where it goes in on the longest day are the north regions Wourubareshti and Wourujareshti.

When the sun comes on, it illumines or warms the regions of Sawahi, Fradadhafshu, Widadhafshu, and half of Xwaniratha; when it goes in on the dark side, it illumines the regions of Arezahi, Wourubareshti, Wourujareshti, and one half of Xwaniratha; when it is day here it is night there. On the conflict of the creations of the world with the antagonism of the evil spirit it is said in revelation, that the evil spirit, even as he rushed in and looked upon the pure bravery of the angels and his own violence, wished to rush back.

The spirit of the sky is himself like one of the warriors who has put on armor; he arrayed the sky against the evil spirit, and led on in the contest, until Ohrmazd had completed a rampart around, stronger than the sky and in front of the sky. And his guardian spirits farohar of warriors and the righteous, on war horses and spear in hand, were around the sky; such-like as the hair on the head is the similitude anguni-aitak of those who hold the watch of the rampart. And no passage was found by the evil spirit, who rushed back; and he beheld the annihilation of the demons and his own impotence, as Ohrmazd did his own final triumph, producing the renovation of universe for ever and everlasting.

The second conflict was waged with the water, because, as the star Tishtar was in Cancer, the water which is in the subdivision they call Avrak was pouring, on the same day when the destroyer rushed in, and came again into notice for mischief avarak in the direction of the west.

For every single month is the owner of one constellation; the month Tir is the fourth month of the year, and Cancer the fourth constellation from Aries, so it is the owner of Cancer, into which Tishtar sprang, and displayed the characteristics of a producer of rain; and he brought on the water aloft by the strength of the wind. Co-operators wlth Tishtar were Vohuman and the angel Hom, with the assistance of the angel Burj and the righteous guardian spirits in orderly arrangement.

Tishtar was converted into three forms, the form of a man and the form of a horse and the form of a bull; thirty days and nights he was distinguished in brilliance, and in each form he produced rain ten days and nights; as the astrologers say that every constellation has three forms. Every single drop of that rain became as big as a bowl, and the water stood the height of a man over the whole of this earth; and the noxious creatures on the earth being all killed by the rain, went into the holes of the earth.

And, afterwards, the wind spirit, so that it may not be contaminated gumikhtstirs up the wind and atmosphere as the life stirs in the body; and the water was all swept away by it, and was brought out to the borders of the earth, and the wide-formed ocean arose therefrom. The noxious creatures remained dead within the earth, and their venom and stench were mingled with the earth, and in order to carry that poison away from the earth Tishtar went down into the ocean in the form of a white horse with long hoofs.

And Apaosh, the demon, came meeting him in the likeness of a black horse with clumsy kund hoofs; a mile parasang away from him fled Tishtar, through the fright which drove him away. And Tishtar begged for success from Ohrmazd, and Ohrmazd gave him strength and power, as it is said, that unto Tishtar was brought at once the strength of ten vigorous horses, ten vigorous camels, ten vigorous bulls, ten mountains, and ten rivers. A mile away from him fled Apaosh, the demon, through fright at his strength; on account of this they speak of an arrow-shot with Tishtar's strength in the sense of a mile.

Afterwards, with a cloud for a jar khumb -- thus they call the measure which was a means of the work -- he seized upon the water and made it rain most prodigiously, in drops like bull's heads and men's heads, pouring in handfuls and pouring in armfuls, both great and small. On the production of that rain the demons Aspenjargak and Apaosh contended with it, and the fire Vazisht turned its club over; and owing to the blow of the club Aspenjargak made a very grievous noise, as even now, in a conflict with the producer of rain, a groaning and raging are manifest.

And ten nights and days rain was produced by him in that manner, and the poison and venom of the noxious creatures which were in the earth were all mixed up in the water, and the water became quite salt, because there remained in the earth some of those germs which noxious creatures ever collect. Afterwards, the wind, in the same manner as before, restrained the water, at the end of three days, on various sides of the earth; and the three great seas and twenty-three small seas arose therefrom, and two fountains chashmak of the sea thereby became manifest, one the Chechast lake, and one the Sovbar, whose sources are connected with the fountain of the sea.

And at its north side two rivers flowed out, and went one to the east and one to the west; they are the Arag river and the Veh river; as it is said thus: Both those rivers wind about through all the extremities of the earth, and intermingle again with the water of the wide-formed ocean. As those two rivers flowed out, and from the same place of origin as theirs, eighteen navigable rivers flowed out, and after the other waters have flowed out from those navigable streams they all flow back to the Arag river and Veh river, whose fertilization khvapardarih of the world arises therefrom.

On the conflict which the evil spirit waged with the earth. As the evil spirit rushed in, the earth shook, and the substance of mountains was created in the earth. First, Mount Alburz arose; afterwards, the other ranges of mountains kofaniha of the middle of the earth; for as Alburz grew forth all the mountains remained in motion, for they have all grown forth from the root of Alburz.

At that time they came up from the earth, like a tree which has grown up to the clouds and its root to the bottom; and their root passed on that way from one to the other, and they are arranged in mutual connection.

Afterwards, about that wonderful shaking out from the earth, they say that a great mountain is the knot of lands; and the passage for the waters within the mountains is the root which is below the mountains; they forsake the upper parts so that they may flow into it, just as the roots of trees pass into the earth; a counterpart anguni-aitak of the blood in the arteries of men, which gives strength to the whole body. In numbers, apart from Alburz, all the mountains grew up out of the earth in eighteen years, from which arises the perfection of men's advantage.

The conflict waged with plants was that when they became quite dry. Amerodad the archangel, as the vegetation was his own, pounded the plants small, and mixed them up with the water which Tishtar seized, and Tishtar made that water rain down upon the whole earth. On the whole earth plants grew up like hair upon the heads of men. Ten thousand of them grew forth of one special description, for keeping away the ten thousand species of disease which the evil spirit produced for the creatures; and from those ten thousand, thespecies of plants have grown forth.

From that same germ of plants the tree of all germs was given forth, and grew up in the wide-formed ocean, from which the germs of all species of plants ever increased. And near to that tree of all germs the Gokard tree was produced, for keeping away deformed dushpad decrepitude; and the full perfection of the world arose therefrom.

On the conflict waged with the primeval ox. As it passed away, owing to the vegetable principle chiharak proceeding from every limb of the ox, fifty and five species of grain and twelve species of medicinal plants grew forth from the earth, and their splendour and strength were the seminal energy tokhmih of the ox.

Delivered to the moon station, that seed was thoroughly purified by the light of the moon, fully prepared in every way, and produced life in a body.

Thence arose two oxen, one male and one female; and, afterwards, two hundred and eighty-two species of each kind became manifest upon the earth. The dwelling manist of the birds is in the air, and the fish are in the midst of the water.

On the nature of the earth it says in revelation, that there are thirty and three kinds of land. On the day when Tishtar produced the rain, when its seas arose therefrom, the whole place, half taken up by water, was converted into seven portions; this portion, as much as one-half, is the middle, and six portions are around; those six portions are together as much as Khvaniras. The name keshvar 'zone or region' is also applied to them, and they existed side by side kash kash ; as on the east side of this portion Khvaniras is the Savah region, on the west is the Arzah region; the two portions on the south side are the Fradadafsh and Vidadafsh regions, the two portions on the north side are the Vorubarsht and Vorujarsst regions, and that in the middle is Khvaniras.

And Khvaniras has the sea, for one part of the wide-formed ocean wound about around it; and from Vorubarsht and Vorujarsht a lofty mountain grew up; so that it is not possible for any one to go from region to region.


And of these seven regions every benefit was created most in Khvaniras, and the evil spirit also produced most for Khvaniras, on account of the superiority sarih which he saw in it.

For the Kayanians and heroes were created in Khvaniras; and the good religion of the Mazdayasnians was created in Khvaniras, and afterwards conveyed to the other regions; Soshyans is born in Khvaniras, who makes the evil spirit impotent, and causes the resurrection and future existence.

On the nature of mountains it says in revelation, that, at first, the mountains have grown forth in eighteen years; and Alburz ever grew till the completion of eight hundred years; two hundred years up to the star station payaktwo hundred years to the moon station, two hundred years to the sun station, and two hundred years to the endless light. I will mention them also a second time; Alburz is around this earth and is connected with the sky. The Terak of Alburz is that through which the stars, moon, and sun pass in, and through it they come back.

Hugar the lofty is that from which the water of Aredvivsur leaps down the height of a thousand men. The Ausindom mountain is that which, being of ruby khun-ahinoof the substance of the sky, is in the midst of the wide-formed oceanj so that its water, which is from Hugar, pours down into it the ocean. Chakad-i-Daitik 'the judicial peak' is that of the middle of the world, the height of a hundred men, on which the Cinwad bridge stands; and they take account of the soul at that place.

The Arezur ridge [of the Alburz mountain] is a summit at the gate of hell, where they always hold the concourse of the demons.

This also is said, that, excepting Alburz, the Aparsen mountain is the greatest; the Aparsen mountain they call the mountain of Pars, and its beginning is in Sagastan and its end in Khujistan. Mount Manush is great; the mountain on which Manushchihar was born. The remaining mountains have chiefly grown from those; as it is said that the elevation afsarih of the districts had arisen most around those three mountains. Mount [Chino], which is on its east, on the frontier of Turkistan, is connected also with Aparsen.

Mount Kaf has grown from the same Mount Aparsen. Mount Aushdashtar is in Sagastan. Mount Arezhur is that which is in the direction of Arum.

The Padash-khvargar mountain is that which is in Taparistan and the side of Gilan.

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The Revand mountain is in Khurasan, on which the Burzin fire was established; and its name Revand means this, that it is glorious. The Vadges mountain is that which is on the frontier of the Vadgesians; that quarter is full of timber and full of trees.

The Bakyir mountain is that which Frasiyav of Tur used as a stronghold, and he made his residence within it; and in the days of Yim a myriad towns and cities were erected on its pleasant and prosperous territory. Mount Kabed-shikaft 'very rugged' is that in Pars, out of the same Mount Aparsen. Mount Siyak-homand 'being black' and Mount Vafar-homand 'having snow'as far as their Kavul borders, have grown out of it Aparsen towards the direction of Chino.

The Spendyad mountain is in the circuit var of Revand. The Kondrasp mountain, on the summit of which is Lake Sovbar, is in the district or by the town of Tus. The Kondras mountain is in Airan-vej. The Asnavand 7 mountain is in Ataro-patakan. The Royishn-homand 'having growth' mountain is that on which vegetation has grown. Whatever mountains are those which are in every place of the various districts and various countries, and cause the tillage and prosperity therein, are many in name and many in number, and have grown from these same mountains.

For the Davad mountain has grown into Khujistan likewise from the Aparsen mountain. The Dimavand mountain is that in which Bevarasp is bound.

From the same Padashkh-vargar mountain unto Mount Kumish, which they call Mount Madofryad 'Come-to-help' -- that in which Vistasp routed Arjasp -- is Mount Miyan-i-dast 'mid-plain'and was broken off from that mountain there. They say, in the war of the religion, when there was confusion among the Iranians it broke off from that mountain, and slid down into the middle of the plain; the Iranians were saved by it, and it was called 'Come-to-help' by them.

The Ganavad mountain is likewise there, on the Ridge of Vishtasp pusht-i Vishtaspan at the abode of the Burzin-Mitro fire, nine leagues parasang to the west. Ravak Bishan is in Zravakad; this place, some say, is Zravad, some call it Bishan, some Kalak; from this the road of two sides of the mountain is down the middle of a fortress; for this reason, that is, because it is there formed, they call Kalak a fortress; this place they also call within the land of Sarak.

Mount Asparog is established from the country of Lake Chechast unto Pars. Pahargar 'the Pahar range' is in Khurasan. Mount Marak is in Laran. Mount Zarin is in Turkistan. Mount Bakht-tan is in Spahan. The rest, apart from this enumeration, which they reckon as fostering hills of the country in the religion of the Mazdayasnians, are the small hills, those which have grown piecemeal in places.

On the nature of seas it says in revelation, that the wide-formed ocean keeps one-third of this earth on the south side of the border of Alburz, and so wide-formed is the ocean that the water of a thousand lakes is held by it, such as the source Aredvivsur, which some say is the fountain lake. Every particular lake is of a particular kind, some are great, and some are small; some are so large that a man with a horse might compass them around in forty days, which is leagues parasang in extent.

Through the warmth and clearness of the water, purifying more than other waters, everything continually flows from the source Aredvivsur. At the south of Mount Alburz a hundred thousand golden channels are there formed, and that water goes with warmth and clearness, tkrough the channels, on to Hugar the lofty; on the summit of that mountain is a lake; into that lake it flows, becomes quite purified, and comes back through a different golden channel.

At the height of a thousand men an open golden branch from that channel is. Of the salt seas three are principal, and twenty-three are small.

Of the three which are principal, one is the Putik, one the Kamrud, and one the Shahi-bun. Of all three the Putik is the largest, in which is a flow and ebb, on the same side as the wide-formed ocean, and it is joined to the wide-formed ocean. Amid this wide-formed ocean, on the Putik side, it has a sea which they call the Gulf var of Sataves.

Thick and salt the stench wishes to go from the sea Putik to the wide-formed ocean with a mighty high wind therefrom, the Gulf of Sataves drives away whatever is stench, and whatever is pure and clean goes into the wide-formed ocean and the source Aredvivsur; and that flows back a second time to Putik. The control of this sea the Putik is connected with the moon and wind; it comes again and goes down, in increase and decrease, because of her revolving.

The control also of the Gulf of Sataves is attached to the constellation Sataves; in whose protection are the seas of the southern quarter, just as those on the northern side are in the protection of Haptoring.

Concerning the flow and ebb it is said, that everywhere from the presence of the moon two winds continually blow, whose abode is in the Gulf of Sataves, one they call the down-draught, and one the up-draught; when the up-draught blows it is the flow, and when the down-draught blows it is the ebb.

In the other seas there is nothing of the nature of a revolution of the moon therein, and there are no flow and ebb. The sea of Kamrud is that which they pass by, in the north, in Taparistan; that of Shahi-bun is in Arum. Of the small seas that which was most wholesome was the sea Kyansih, such as is in Sagastan; at first, noxious creatures, snakes, and lizards vazagh were not in it, and the water was sweeter than in any of the other seas; later dadigar it became salt; at the closest, on account of the stench, it is not possible to go so near as one league, so very great are the stench and saltness through the violence of the hot wind.

When the renovation of the universe occurs it will again become sweet. On the nature of the five classes of animals gospend it says in revelation, that, when the primeval ox passed away, there where the marrow came out grain grew up of fifty and five species, and twelve species of medicinal plants grew; as it says, that out of the marrow is every separate creature, every single thing whose lodgment is in the marrow.

From the horns arose peas mijukfrom the nose the leek, from the blood the grapevine from which they make wine -- on this account wine abounds with blood -- from the lungs the rue-like herbs, from the middle of the heart thyme for keeping away stench, and every one of the others as revealed in the Avesta.

The seed of the ox was carried up to the moon station; there it was thoroughly purified, and produced the manifold species of animals. First, two oxen, one male and one female, and, afterwards, one pair of every single species was let go into the earth, and was discernible in Eranvej for a Hasar 'mile'which is like a Parasang 'league' ; as it says, that, on account of the value of the ox, it was created twice, one time as an ox, and one time as the manifold species of animals.

A thousand days and nights they were without eating, and first water and afterwards herbage aurvar were devoured by them. And, afterwards, the three classes kardak of animals were produced therefrom, as it says that first were the goat and sheep, and then the camel and swine, and then the horse and ass. For, first, those suitable for grazing were created therefrom, those are now kept in the valley lai ; the second created were those of the hill summits sar-i dezwhich are wide-travelers, and habits nihadak are not taught to them by hand; the third created were those dwelling in the water.

As for the genera khadunakthe first genus is that which has the foot cloven in two, and is suitable for grazing; of which a camel larger than a horse is small and new-born. The second genus is ass-footed, of which the swift horse is the largest, and the ass the least. The third genus is that of the five-dividing paw, of which the dog is the largest, and the civet-cat the least.

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