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In addition, the new UP provincial administration promulgated cow protection and the use of Hindi. Having not taken the Pakistan idea seriously, Linlithgow supposed that what Jinnah actually wanted was a non-federal arrangement without Hindu domination.

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To allay Muslim fears of Hindu domination the 'August offer' was accompanied with the promise that a future constitution would take the views of minorities into consideration. The Congress once again started a program of civil disobedience. The League rejected the Cripps offer, seeing this clause as insufficient in meeting the principle of Pakistan. An aged and abandoned Muslim couple and their grandchildren sitting by the roadside on this arduous journey.

The caravan has gone on," wrote Bourke-White. An old Sikh man carrying his wife. Over 10 million people were uprooted from their homeland and travelled on foot, bullock carts and trains to their promised new home.

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Gandhi in Bela, Bihar, after attacks on Muslims, 28 March Labour Prime Minister Clement Attlee had been deeply interested in Indian independence since the s, and for years had supported independence.

He now took charge of the government position and gave the issue highest priority.

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Although the mutinies were rapidly suppressed, they had the effect of spurring the Attlee government to action. The objective of the mission was to arrange for an orderly transfer to independence. With the announcement of the elections the line had been drawn for Muslim voters to choose between a united Indian state or Partition. Now as the trials began, the Congress leadership, although it never supported the INA, chose to defend the accused officers.

British rule had lost its legitimacy for most Hindus and conclusive proof of this came in the form of the elections with the Congress winning 91 percent of the vote among non-Muslim constituencies, thereby gaining a majority in the Central Legislature and forming governments in eight provinces, and becoming the legitimate successor to the British government for most Hindus.

If the British intended to stay in India the acquiescence of politically active Indians to British rule would have been in doubt after these election results, although the views of many rural Indians were uncertain even at that point.

Recovering from its performance in the elections, the Muslim League was finally able to make good on the claim that it and Jinnah alone represented India's Muslims [65] and Jinnah quickly interpreted this vote as a popular demand for a separate homeland.

Through this mission, Britain hoped to preserve the united India which they and the Congress desired, while concurrently securing the essence of Jinnah's demand for a Pakistan through 'groupings'. Two of these groupings would consist of predominantly Muslim provinces, while the third grouping would be made up of the predominantly Hindu regions.

The provinces would be autonomous but the center would retain control over defence, foreign affairs and communications. Though the proposals did not offer independent Pakistan, the Muslim League accepted the proposals.

Even though the unity of India would have been preserved, the Congress leaders, especially Nehru, believed it would leave the Center weak. On 10 July Nehru gave a "provocative speech", rejected the idea of grouping the provinces and "effectively torpedoed" both the Cabinet mission plan and the prospect of a United India. However, on the morning of the 16th, armed Muslim gangs gathered at the Ochterlony Monument in Calcutta to hear Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardythe League's Chief Minister of Bengal, who, in the words of historian Yasmin Khan, "if he did not explicitly incite violence certainly gave the crowd the impression that they could act with impunity, that neither the police nor the military would be called out and that the ministry would turn a blind eye to any action they unleashed in the city.

Although India had had outbreaks of religious violence between Hindus and Muslims before, the Calcutta killings were the first to display elements of " ethnic cleansing ", in modern parlance. The communal violence spread to Bihar where Muslims were attacked by Hindusto Noakhali in Bengal where Hindus were targeted by Muslimsto Garhmukteshwar in the United Provinces where Muslims were attacked by Hindusand on to Rawalpindi in March in which Hindus were attacked or driven out by Muslims.

Mountbatten hoped to revive the Cabinet Mission scheme for a federal arrangement for India. But despite his initial keenness for preserving the center the tense communal situation caused him to conclude that partition had become necessary for a quicker transfer of power. He had been outraged by Jinnah's Direct Action campaign, which had provoked communal violence across India and by the viceroy's vetoes of his home department's plans to stop the violence on the grounds of constitutionality.

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Patel severely criticised the viceroy's induction of League ministers into the government and the revalidation of the grouping scheme by the British without Congress approval. Although further outraged at the League's boycott of the assembly and non-acceptance of the plan of 16 May despite entering government, he was also aware that Jinnah did enjoy popular support amongst Muslims, and that an open conflict between him and the nationalists could degenerate into a Hindu-Muslim civil war of disastrous consequences.

The continuation of a divided and weak central government would in Patel's mind, result in the wider fragmentation of India by encouraging more than princely states towards independence.

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Menon on the latter's suggestion for a separate dominion of Pakistan created out of Muslim-majority provinces. Communal violence in Bengal and Punjab in January and March further convinced Patel of the soundness of partition.

Patel, a fierce critic of Jinnah's demand that the Hindu-majority areas of Punjab and Bengal be included in a Muslim state, obtained the partition of those provinces, thus blocking any possibility of their inclusion in Pakistan. Patel's decisiveness on the partition of Punjab and Bengal had won him many supporters and admirers amongst the Indian public, which had tired of the League's tactics, but he was criticised by Gandhi, Nehru, secular Muslims and socialists for a perceived eagerness to do so.

When Lord Louis Mountbatten formally proposed the plan on 3 JunePatel gave his approval and lobbied Nehru and other Congress leaders to accept the proposal.

Partition of India

Knowing Gandhi's deep anguish regarding proposals of partition, Patel engaged him in frank discussion in private meetings over the perceived practical unworkability of any Congress-League coalition, the rising violence and the threat of civil war. I fully appreciate the fears of our brothers from [the Muslim-majority areas]. Nobody likes the division of India and my heart is heavy. But the choice is between one division and many divisions. We must face facts.

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We cannot give way to emotionalism and sentimentality. The Working Committee has not acted out of fear. But I am afraid of one thing, that all our toil and hard work of these many years might go waste or prove unfruitful.

My nine months in office has completely disillusioned me regarding the supposed merits of the Cabinet Mission Plan. Except for a few honorable exceptions, Muslim officials from the top down to the chaprasis peons or servants are working for the League.

The communal veto given to the League in the Mission Plan would have blocked India's progress at every stage. Whether we like it or not, de facto Pakistan already exists in the Punjab and Bengal. Under the circumstances I would prefer a de jure Pakistan, which may make the League more responsible.

We have 75 to 80 percent of India, which we can make strong with our own genius. The League can develop the rest of the country. However, neither he nor any other Indian leader had foreseen the intense violence and population transfer that would take place with partition. Subsequently, residential schools for pupils from upper-class families were established nearby.

By the late s, the city also became a centre for theatre and art exhibitions. As the population increased, a number of bungalows were built and a big bazaar was established in the town.

The Indian businessmen, mainly from Sood [ disambiguation needed ] and Parsi communities, arrived in the area to cater to the needs of the growing European population. On 9 September the foundation of the Christ Church was laid. Subsequently, several roads were widened and the construction of the Hindustan-Tibet road with a feet tunnel was taken up in — This tunnel, now known as the Dhalli Tunnel, was started by a Major Briggs in and completed in the winter of — A fire cleared much of the area where the native Indian population lived the "Upper Bazaar" nowadays known as the Ridge [11]and the planning of the eastern end to become the centre of the European town forced them to live in the Middle and Lower Bazaars on the lower terraces descending the steep slopes from the Ridge.

The Upper Bazaar was cleared for a town hall, with many facilities such as library and theatre, as well as offices for police and military volunteers as well as municipal administration. The summer capital of the regional Government of the Punjab moved from Murreein modern-day Pakistanto Shimla in They were joined by many of the British wives and daughters of the men who remained on the plains. Together these formed Shimla Society, which, according to Charles Allen[12] "was as close as British India ever came to having an upper crust.

British soldiers, merchants and civil servants moved here each year to escape from the heat during summer in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The presence of many bachelors and unattached men, as well as the many women passing the hot weather there, gave Shimla a reputation for adultery, and at least gossip about adultery: The railway route from Kalka to Shimla, with more than bridges and tunnels, was touted as an engineering feat and came to be known as the "British Jewel of the Orient".

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Upon the formation of the state of Himachal Pradesh inShimla was named its capital. Himachal became a part C state on 26 January with the implementation of the Constitution of India and the Lt. Legislative Assembly was elected in Himachal Pradesh became a Union Territory on 1 November Thus Himachal emerged as the eighteenth state of the Indian Union. British Shimla extended about a mile and a half along the ridge between Jakhoo Hill and Prospect Hill.

The central spine was the Mallwhich ran along the length of the ridge, with a Mall Extension southwards, closed to all carriages except those of the Viceroy and his wife.