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The Christian kingdoms of Iberia and the Islamic Almohad empire c. The Caliphate was mostly concerned with maintaining its power base in North Africa, but these possessions eventually dwindled to the Ceuta province. Even so, Al-Andalus remained vastly superior to all the northern kingdoms combined in population, economy and military might; and internal conflict between the Christian kingdoms contributed to keep them relatively harmless.
Under his son, other Christian cities were subjected to numerous raids. The Taifa kings competed against each other not only in war but also in the protection of the arts, and culture enjoyed a brief upswing. Medieval Spain was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. This conflict ensured a supply of Moorish slaves. Faced with the choice of death, conversion, or emigration, many Jews and Christians left. Despite the decline in Muslim-controlled kingdoms, they had lasting effects in culture and society on the peninsula.
The Taifa kingdoms lost ground to the Christian realms in the north. After the loss of Toledo inthe Muslim rulers reluctantly invited the Almoravideswho invaded Al-Andalus from North Africa and established an empire. In the 12th century the Almoravid empire broke up again, only to be taken over by the Almohad invasion, who were defeated by an alliance of the Christian kingdoms in the decisive battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Bynearly all of Iberia was back under Christian rule with the exception of the Muslim kingdom of Granada.
Considered by most to have been the first mercenary company in Western Europe, the Catalan Company proceeded to occupy the Duchy of Athenswhich they placed under the protection of a prince of the House of Aragon and ruled until Throughout the century, Castilian what is also known today as Spanish gained a growing prominence in the Kingdom of Castile as the language of culture and communication, at the expense of Leonese and of other close dialects.
One example of this is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem, Cantar de Mio Cidwritten about the military leader El Cid. In the last years of the reign of Ferdinand III of CastileCastilian began to be used for certain types of documents, and it was during the reign of Alfonso X that it became the official language.
Henceforth all public documents were written in Castilian; likewise all translations were made into Castilian instead of Latin. At the same time, Catalan and Galician became the standard languages in their respective territories, developing important literary traditions and being the normal languages in which public and private documents were issued: Galician from the 13th to the 16th century in Galicia and nearby regions of Asturias and Leon,  and Catalan from the 12th to the 18th century in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia, where it was known as Valencian.
Both languages were later substituted in its official status by Castilian Spanish, till the 20th century. Some, such as the Leonese Salamanca and the Castilian Palencia, were among the earliest universities in Europe. Early Modern Spain Dynastic union of the Catholic Monarchs Iberian polities circa In the 15th century, the most important among all of the separate Christian kingdoms that made up the old Hispania were the Kingdom of Castile occupying northern and central portions of the Iberian Peninsulathe Kingdom of Aragon occupying northeastern portions of the peninsulaand the Kingdom of Portugal occupying the far western Iberian Peninsula.
The rulers of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were allied with dynastic families in Portugal, France, and other neighboring kingdoms. Isabella retained the throne and ruled jointly with her husband, King Ferdinand II. Isabella and Ferdinand had married in  in Valladolid.
Their marriage united both crowns and set the stage for the creation of the Kingdom of Spain, at the dawn of the modern era. That union, however, was a union in title only, as each region retained its own political and judicial structure. Pursuant to an agreement signed by Isabella and Ferdinand on January 15, Isabella held more authority over the newly unified Spain than her husband, although their rule was shared.
This 16th-century Spanish carpet shows stylistic influences from Europe and the Islamic world. Collections of the Textile Museum Washington, D. Conclusion of the Reconquista and start of the Spanish Inquisition Further information: Melilla was occupied in and Ceuta was annexed from the Portuguese in Over the next century, half of the estimated 80, Spanish Jews converted to Christianity becoming " conversos ".
Depending on different sources, the number of Jews actually expelled, traditionally estimated atpeople, is now believed to have numbered about 40, Jews and Muslims were not the only people to be persecuted during this time period.
All Roma Gitano, Gypsy males between the ages of 18 and 26 were forced to serve in galleys — which was equivalent to a death sentence — but the majority managed to hide and avoid arrest[ citation needed ]. Isabella and Ferdinand authorized the expedition of Christopher Columbuswho became the first known European to reach the New World since Leif Ericson.
This and subsequent expeditions led to an influx of wealth into Spain, supplementing income from within Castile for the state that would prove to be a dominant power of Europe for the next two centuries. Isabella ensured long-term political stability in Spain by arranging strategic marriages for each of her five children. Her firstborn, a daughter named Isabellamarried Afonso of Portugalforging important ties between these two neighboring countries and hopefully ensuring future alliance, but Isabella soon died before giving birth to an heir.
This ensured an alliance with the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empirea powerful, far-reaching territory that assured Spain's future political security.
Isabella's only son, Juanmarried Margaret of Austriafurther strengthening ties with the Habsburg dynasty. Isabella's fourth child, Mariamarried Manuel I of Portugalstrengthening the link forged by her older sister's marriage.
Conquest of the Canary Islands Main articles: Conquest of the Canary Islands and Kingdom of the Canary Islands The conquest of the Canary Islands by the Crown of Castile took place between with the conquest of Lanzarote and with the conquest of Tenerife. Two periods can be distinguished in this process: Imperial Spain See also: It was also one of the largest empires in world history. In the 16th century, Spain and Portugal were in the vanguard of European global exploration and colonial expansion.
The two kingdoms on the conquest and Iberian Peninsula competed with each other in opening of trade routes across the oceans. Spanish imperial conquest and colonization began with the Canary Islands in and In the 15th and 16th centuries, trade flourished across the Atlantic between Spain and the Americas and across the Pacific between East Asia and Mexico via the Philippines.
Spanish Conquistadorsoperating privately, deposed the AztecInca and Maya governments with extensive help from local factions and took control of vast stretches of land. Diseases such as smallpox and measles that arrived with the colonizers devastated the native populations, especially in the densely populated regions of the Aztec, Maya and Inca civilizations, and this reduced the economic potential of conquered areas.
Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of the Americas vary but possibly stood at million—one fifth of humanity in Between and the population of the Americas was halved.
In Mexico alone, it has been estimated that the pre-conquest population of around 25 million people was reduced within 80 years to about 1. These silver shipments re-oriented the Spanish economy, leading to the importation of luxuries and grain. The resource-rich colonies of Spain thus caused large cash inflows for the country. Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the 16th and 17th centuries.
For a time, the Spanish Empire dominated the oceans with its experienced navy and ruled the European battlefield with its fearsome and well trained infantry, the famous tercios. The financial burden within the peninsula was on the backs of the peasant class while the nobility enjoyed an increasingly lavish lifestyle. From the time beginning with the incorporation of the Portuguese Empire in lost in until the loss of its American colonies in the 19th century, Spain maintained one of the largest empires in the world even though it suffered military and economic misfortunes from the s.
Religion played a very strong role in the spread of the Spanish empire. The thought that Spain could bring Christianity to the New World and protect Catholicism in Europe certainly played a strong role in the expansion of Spain's empire.
As he approached the end of his life he made provision for the division of the Habsburg inheritance into two parts. This was to create enormous difficulties for his son Philip II of Spain. Philip II became king in and reigned until Spain penalized heresy heavily and largely suppressed the religious conflicts that were raging throughout the rest of Europe.
History of Scotland
Yuan Dynasty woodblocks edition of a Chinese play Mongolian Buddhist printing block. Korean wood printing block from the 19th century, on display at the British Museum in London.
A printing block from Yangzhou. Song dynasty bronze plate advertising print for the Liu family needle shop at Jinan. Earliest extant print advertisement. Copperplate of — cash Jin dynasty — paper money with bronze movable type counterfeit markers Ceramic movable type print from the Western Xia. A revolving typecase for wooden type in China, from Wang Zhen 's book published in Wooden movable type for Old Uyghur alphabetdated to the 12thth centuries.
Discovered in the Mogao caves. It became widely used throughout East Asia both as a method for printing on textiles and later, under the influence of Buddhismon paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to about Ukiyo-e is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print.
Most European uses of the technique on paper are covered by the term woodcut see belowexcept for the block-books produced mainly in the fifteenth century. Eventually he was dealt with by the governor's successor, who presumably executed Gong. The semi-mythical record of him therefore describes his usage of the printing process to deliberately bewilder onlookers and create an image of mysticism around himself.
According to Mahayana beliefs, religious texts hold intrinsic value for carrying the Buddha's word and act as talismanic objects containing sacred power capable of warding off evil spirits.
By copying and preserving these texts, Buddhists could accrue personal merit. As a consequence the idea of printing and its advantages in replicating texts quickly became apparent to Buddhists, who by the 7th century, were using woodblocks to create apotropaic documents.
These Buddhist texts were printed specifically as ritual items and were not widely circulated or meant for public consumption. Instead they were buried in consecrated ground. The Great Dharani Sutra Korean: They have been dated to the reign of Wu Zetian using character form recognition. This copy of the Diamond Sutra is 14 feet long and contains a colophon at the inner end, which reads: Reverently [caused to be] made for universal free distribution by Wang Jie on behalf of his two parents on the 13th of the 4th moon of the 9th year of Xiantong [i.
It is considered the world's oldest securely-dated woodblock scroll. During the Song dynastythe Directorate of education and other agencies used these block prints to disseminate their standardized versions of the Classics. Other disseminated works include the Histories, philosophical works, encyclopedias, collections, and books on medicine and the art of war. It took 10 years to finish theblocks needed to print the text. The finished product, the Sichuan edition of the Kaibao canon, also known as the Kaibao Tripitaka, was printed in The request was granted in when Seongjong's official Han Eongong visited the Song court.
The project was suspended in after Heyongjong's death, but work resumed again in after Munjong 's accession to the throne. The completed work, amounting to some 6, volumes, was finished in Unfortunately the original set of woodblocks was destroyed in a conflagration during the Mongol invasion of King Gojong ordered another set to be created and work began inthis time only taking 12 years to complete.
In the complete Goryeo Daejanggyeong numbered 81, printing blocks, 52, characters, titles, and volumes. Due to the stringent editing process that went into the Goryeo Daejanggyeong and its surprisingly enduring nature, having survived completely intact over years, it is considered the most accurate of Buddhist canons written in Classical Chinese as well as a standard edition for East Asian Buddhist scholarship. Fan Ping had in his collection 7, rolls juanor a few hundred titles. Two centuries later, Zhang Mian owned 10, juan, Shen Yue 20, juan, and Xiao Tong and his cousin Xiao Mai both had collections of 30, juan.
Emperor Yuan of Liang was said to have had a collection of 80, juan.
History of printing - Wikipedia
The combined total of all known private book collectors prior to the Song dynasty number aroundwith the Tang alone accounting for 60 of them. The Song dynasty alone accounts for some known private collections, more than triple the number of all the preceding centuries combined. Private libraries ofjuan became commonplace while six individuals owned collections of over 30, juan.
The earliest extant private Song library catalogue lists 1, titles in 24, juan. Zhou Mi's collection numbered 42, juan, Chen Zhensun's collection lists 3, titles in 51, juan, and Ye Mengde as well as one other individual owned libraries of 6, titles injuan.
The majority of which were secular in nature. At the start of the dynasty the Three Institutes' holdings numbered 13, juan, by the year 39, juan, by 47, juan, and by 73, juan. The Three Institutes were one of several imperial libraries, with eight other major palace libraries, not including imperial academies. The emperor went to the Directorate of Education to inspect the Publications Office. He asked Xing Bing how many woodblocks were kept there. Bing replied, "At the start of our dynasty, there were fewer than four thousand.