Yale Digital Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson
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There is some danger in such elaboration, translation, and imbrication that inconsistencies have slipped in, and more disturbingly, that references have been lost or elided. In doing the last two drafts I sometimes realized that Brack was quoting himself most often or someone else occasionallyalthough the quotation marks had disappeared and the footnote was displaced or sometimes perhaps in the translation from one word processing system to another erased.
I know there are many people that Skip Brack would have wished to acknowledge at this point for their help over the many years that he worked on the project. I am sorry that I cannot supply the roll call of those people, but I know he would have wished to thank Loren Rothschild for his generous Page xii support, including access to his splendid library.
He would also have most sincerely thanked the librarians and staff at the Huntington Library, where he did most of his research on this project. Most of all, however, Skip Brack would have wished to acknowledge the great help and solace in his work and life that he received from his wife, Cynthia Burns. Although I worked on this project for much less time than Skip Brack, it still occupied much of my time for six years, and I too had plenty of help.
I wish to thank the National Endowment for the Humanities for their generous grant under the Scholarly Editions program, which facilitated my work on this volume and supplied the funds necessary to launch the digital version of the Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson. The project also benefited from a Katherine T. My research assistant Elizabeth Shand first helped me organize the materials that Brack sent me and then worked with me with support from the Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities to bring the project to fruition.
Vassar College supplied the funds to add for two years another excellent student research assistant, Angela Rhoads, and for one summer a third, April Levins. In the final stages I received research assistance from Kathleen D. Many others helped along the way. In particular, I wish to thank Robert D. Brown, who supplied many translations and gently corrected my Latin whenever I asked. Kent Kildahl took time out from his sabbatical to track down some needed information in Oxford. Lock read a draft of the volume and made many excellent suggestions.
Gerald Goldberg, Paul Ruxin, and William Zachs generously gave me access to their personal libraries. Many members of the Yale Editorial Committee fielded numerous questions about this volume, but James Engell was especially generous with his time and energy.
For sound intellectual advice as well as for her patience and ongoing support of every kind, I wish to thank Joanne DeMaria. Ancillary Writings Advertisement Obituary of Mrs. Paragraphs Added to The Life of Dr. Styan Thirlby Index Page xix No species of writing [is] more worthy of cultivation than biography. Rambler 60 Johnson made this statement in his most famous essay on biography in He was then beginning mid-life, and at the age of forty-one he was approaching the middle of his career as a biographer.
He would not begin his most famous biographies, the Lives of the Poets, for over a quarter of a century, but he had already written about a dozen biographies in the previous dozen years and would write another seven or eight before undertaking the fifty-one lives that he wrote as Prefaces Critical and Biographical for the Works of the English Poets, now known as the Lives of the Poets. By Johnson had read enough biographies—both modern and classical—to have settled views on the genre, and he had written enough of them to have established his focus as a biographer.
Part of the reason for this is that Johnson wrote most of his biographies for hire, and the lives of eminent men, including the eminently bad, were most in demand. Some of these, like Fra Paolo Sarpi, led lives with an impact on politics, but almost all were mainly scholars: Confucius, Richard Savage, the Earl of Roscommon, and William Collins were learned men of letters, and Edward Cave was, if not learned himself, a facilitator of learning and letters.
Johnson was himself a scholar with pretensions, especially early in life, to scholarly eminence, and it was natural that he should be drawn to figures from this sphere of human endeavor. Inevitably Johnson saw his subjects, sometimes, as versions of himself, and his biographies often have elements of hidden autobiography, as many critics have pointed out. Johnson made a point of touching on these matters in many of his early lives, but he often limited his researches to a few sources, and if those sources did not have the prized information, he frequently left it out.
In his life of Sydenham, for example, Johnson says: Under whose care he was educated, or in what manner he passed his childhood, whether he made any early discoveries of a genius peculiarly adapted to the study of nature, or gave any presages of his future eminence in medicine, no information is to be obtained.
We must therefore repress that curiosity which would naturally incline us to watch the first attempts of so vigorous a mind, to persue it in its childish enquiries, and see it struggling with rustic prejudices, breaking on trifling occasions the shackles of credulity, and giving proofs in its casual excursions, that it was formed to shake off the yoke of prescription, and dispel the phantoms of hypothesis.
For there is no instance of any man whose history has been minutely related, that did not in every part of life discover the same proportion of intellectual vigour; but it has been the lot of the greatest part of those who have excelled in science, to be known only by their own writings, and to have left behind them no remembrance of their domestic life, or private transactions, or only such memorials of particular passages as are, on certain occasions, necessarily recorded in publick registers.
Often, as he says, the information was not available, but, despite the value he placed on such information, Johnson neither dug deep nor searched widely for it. Even when he had such information, moreover, Johnson did not always use it. When they did represent them, however, they sometimes exalted them incredibly. And the earth never could provide a wife who would cherish the great affection of her great husband with such great tenderness. The standard of credibility must first be met for the domestic to be interesting, no matter how private or intimate.
So, he says in the life of Browne: Of every great and eminent character, part breaks forth into publick view, and part lies hid in domestick privacy. Those qualities which have been exerted in any known and lasting performances, may, at any distance of time, be traced and estimated; but silent excellencies are soon forgotten; and those minute peculiarities which discriminate every man from all others, if they are not recorded by those whom personal knowledge enabled to observe them, are irrecoverably lost.
This mutilation of character must have happened, among many others, to Sir Thomas Browne, had it not been delineated by his friend Mr. As ever, he is alert to breaches in credibility and, as he said later in life, he was always full of the incredulus odi.
So, in the life of Baratier — In the life of Boerhaave, for example, Johnson writes a few brilliant, characteristically Johnsonian sentences in response to an incident he has reported: Those who cannot strike with force, can, however, poison their weapon, and, weak as they are, give mortal wounds, and bring a hero to the grave: Similarly, Johnson takes an incident from the life of Drake in which his employer makes him a bequest as the springboard for an ethical exhortation: If it were not improper to dwell longer on an incident at the first view so inconsiderable, it might be added, that it deserves the reflection of those, who, when they are engaged in affairs not adequate to their abilities, pass them over with a contemptuous neglect, and while they amuse themselves with chimerical schemes, and plans of future undertakings, suffer every opportunity of smaller advantage to slip away as unworthy their regard.
They may learn from the example of Drake, that diligence in employments of less consequence is the most successful introduction to greater enterprizes. In some cases the political occasion is more complex. The lives of Ascham, Browne, and Confucius, for example, are tied to larger publishing projects, much as the later Lives of the Poets would be. Boerhaave and Baratier, for example, had recently died when Johnson wrote about them.
Their deaths provided Page xxvii commercial opportunities for publishers, but it is telling that they turned to Johnson in particular to write the lives of the learned. In addition, however, and much more constantly, Johnson had to hand a few general sources of biographical information: One or more of these compilations must have been on his desk when he composed most of his biographies.
He borrowed some of them as he undoubtedly borrowed some of the more obscure titles on specific men. Often, he was able to call on his friend Thomas Birch, who had amassed a valuable library in the course of his work on the General Dictionary. Birch could have given him manuscripts, but Johnson was seldom interested in that level of research.
There were libraries to which he could have gone, even before the British Library came into existence inbut he did not do concentrated research in libraries, even when he visited them. For example, he puts Sydenham on the wrong side in the Civil War, it appears, not because he was misinformed but rather because of assumptions he made based on his own political preference for the monarchist position.
Displaying a more complex sort of bias, Johnson assumes that Savage was right in claiming to be the son of the Countess of Macclesfield.
This is reflected not only in his Account of the Life of Mr. Richard Savagewhich appears in volume 22 of the Yale Edition, but also in the obituary Page xxix notice of Mrs.
Brett former Countess of Macclesfieldand the epitome of the life of Savage. The obituary of Mrs. Brett and the epitome are included in this volume.
PEP Web - Proverbs and Psychoanalysis
Ross pointed out some time ago. Does somebody believe we have to put also all the previous bishops in this category? Andrew Dalby disputatio Spero alios nobiscum consentire. Res cotidiana sicut limon paginam nomine 'limon' tantum debent habere, et incipere "Limon binomen: Citrus x limon est Lemon faciuntsed si nomen latinum cotidianum vel vetus non existit, fortasse melius fore est paginam nominare secundum illud binomen scientificum.
Hanc sententiam habeo quod opinor Vicipaediam studiare modo encyclopaediam fieri, non librum biologicum, aut mathematicum. Probably the better verb to build from is ' misceo '.
Et recte dicis de misceo, sed quid dixit Mendel? Mendel scripsisse Germanice non Latine videtur. Nostra pagina super Mendel est dubiosae latinitatis. At aliquis alicubi aliquando de genetica scribere debet nonne? Homophylophilia [ fontem recensere ] I notice this category is anonymously spreading across a range of biographical articles, sometimes without justification in the text though no doubt justification could be found in other wikis.
I'm just wondering to what extent it's appropriate to categorize people by this particular sexual preference. Some express their preferences as part of their public persona, some don't. If they didn't, should we? I see that the same categorisation has been done on en. Now I'll wait the others users' opinion -- Massimo Macconi LGBT people from Italy. Yes, we'll see what others think. I didn't see it till now. It makes good sense, I think: Allthough those descriptions often follow the same rules and thers only little that can be changed if you dont want to describe a complete different plant The sources I mean are online editions of middle age texts old medical books like: No copyright problem, of course.
So somewhere in print you'll find a Latin diagnosis and a Latin description of every valid species of plant. I suppose we may find millions of such writeups; and in an ideal world, they might be collected in one place; but Vicipaedia, being devoted to a much larger array of topics than plants, may not be that place.
The Latin terminology has become so refined that to change one word of a diagnosis might indeed change the referent to a different plant. Again and I'm agreeing with Iacobus, I thinkif we quote them, we should mark them off clearly as a quotation so that later editors don't try to adjust the wording. One would think that those would have been the first articles that our taxonomist-friends would have written. Besides I dont intend to gather countless plant-diagnoses, but to post selfmade descriptions.
I only want to use existing ones as an pattern for wording and structure. I dont think logical wordly coincidence has to be quoted too? The home page looked the same as Hoffmann.
Let Vicipaedia be an official site for the publication of new species!!! But where will the type specimens be stored? They must be published in scientific journals first and then a reference can be provided. No original researchVicipaedia: Citing sources ; although in principle we can deviate from these on la, it would require that a consensus be forged.
But that is the subject of a separate thread. From what I can see, what Iacobus means to say, is that an important fact is overlooked by the above statement, namely, that the referent of any category in the diagnosis comes from the the "way" the different items are described in "the context of the whole".
Thus the actual "way" things are described in the "official" diagnosis determines "what" is referred to. Also, perhaps the statement "I dont think its worth "spamming" new single-sentence-pages creating articles about such kind of terminus technicus?
A person could say the same thing, for example, about creating a page for every species, i. Is it right to call it spamming? Why is your opinion valid?
- Significado de "scheme" en el diccionario de inglés
Really what is done here is a mere presenting of a personal opinion, labeling something as spamming, without presenting any argument other than the label and that it is one's opinion to back it up. I have a mind to Latinize that English article and insert some examples of actual botanical diagnoses drawn from Stearnsbut I'm busy right now, so anybody who wants to may feel free to have a go.
And thats why I dislike those single-sentence "avatar" pages, that dont really say anything. Besides I didnt speak about original research of new speciesbut about known species as arum, allocasia, areca, lantana, phyllanthus, sinocalamus, Most single-sentence pages that I've seen are sub-sub-substubs, and they deserve immense expansion, but they're there because their creators often usores ignoti don't have enough Latin to do the expanding, though as we say in English with quasi-clinical anatomical presumption "their hearts are in the right place.
PEP Web - Proverbs and Psychoanalysis
It has been pointed out that this confuses two modern professions, those of interpreters of speech and translators of texts. And, thinking about it, I guess these would always have been two distinct skills. So should we call the translators "translatores"? If interested, please comment at Disputatio Categoriae: Homines manually by moving all the entries into subcategories as far as I could and deleting them from Homines.
Now the same should be done for Categoria: Biographia - thank you Andrew Dalby. However, with regard to the number of pages there, it's not advisable to do it all manually. So, has anybody ever used the AutoWikiBrowser on Vicipaedia? Apparently not as it is not applicable for Latin. I suggest to semi-automatically delete "Categoria: Biographia" from pages which are in categories like Categoria: Episcopiand so on to the effect that only those pages which are already in subcategories of Categoria: Homines are taken out of Biographia and we can deal with the remainder pages later on rather than just deleting "Categoria: Biographia" from all pages that have it.
With this precaution, would you agree that this is a legitimate way of editing that category semi-automatically? I would certainly agree with your proposed deletion; or another approach would be to remove Categoria: I don't know whether UVBot is capable of doing either of these things? I deleted all occurrences of [[Categoria: Biographia]] without sortkeymaking sure that all these pages are in fact in Categoria: Homines or its subcategories.
What remains now are about occurrences of [[Categoria: These pages are now still in Categoria: Quae remanent, paulatim aggrediar. What's to be done with them? They are the ones that are right thank goodness! If you'd care to recategorize the 40 that remain in Categoria: Biographiaall will then be well. One of my problems was the special vocabulary I needed. The article should describe one of the oldest buildings in our city. It produced brass about years ago.
Do you know any source of information where I can get the required vocabulary from words like brass, furnace, ore, mine, pit etc. I would appreciate your help as I intend to improve the quality of the text and avoid deleting it.
Best regards -- BBKurt Also there is the book "De Natura Fossilium" which is about metallugy. THe books have lots of pictures showing the various equipment and things with latin names. Maybe some aspects will be skipped. The help of others is welcome. The brass-factory with the name Bauschenberg a small hill in the neighborhood. I don't know the Latin word for brass-factory.
Thats why I called it the "house of Cupper from Bauschenberg. I really don't like to guess blindly or spend time researching what is intended. If you know english, it would be very helpful to give a word for word literal english translation of what you intend to write in latin.
The link to the article in the english Wikipedia may help.