University of arizona carbon dating dinosaur bones song

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Forty-nine of the fifty U.S. states that make up the United States of America have one or more Arizona has a song that was written specifically as a state anthem in , as well as the Adopted by the Stephen Foster Memorial at the University of Pittsburgh from the original by .. Effective date". Everybody knows fossils are fickle; bones will sing any song you want to The recent discoveries of dinosaur bones with “fresh” tissue and . Pb-Pb, and U-Pb. Carbon dating is another common technique, .. Interestingly, the Grand Canyon strata extend over miles into the eastern part of Arizona. Regina Capuano, University of Houston My research focused on developing techniques for dating secondary iron and manganese dig up dinosaur bones. . even at major research universities like the University of Arizona. . (GFDL ESM2M) to examine the effects of changing ocean circulation on rainfall and carbon.

Princeton University Betancourt, Julio L. Bigio, Erica An integration of tree-ring and alluvial records of the fire history at the missionary ridge fire, Durango, Colorado M.

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Bladh, Kenneth Walter The weathering of sulfide-bearing rocks associated with porphyry-type copper deposits Ph. Boghossian, Nevine Dikran Nd isotopes and the source of sediments in the miogeocline of the Canadian Cordillera M. Boissevain, Paul Robert The mise-a-la-masse method using induced polarization M. Bolin, David Samuel A geochemical comparison of some barren and mineralized igneous complexes of southern Arizona M. Implications for the crustal inheritance of metals Ph.

Brakenridge, George Robert The impact of climatic change on floodplain sedimentation, soil formation, and eolian activity in southern Missouri M. A history of changing floodplain sedimentary regimes Ph. Copy 2 copies U Braun, Eric R.

Braun, Gerald Eugene Atomic substitution in the tetrahedrite tennantite series M. Bredbeck, Todd Crustal structure of west-central Africa from regional full waveform modeling M. Evidence for reliable 14C dating of sediments and constraints on the 14C contents of paleogroundwater M. Brikowski, Tom Harry A quantitative analysis of hydrothermal circulation around mid-ocean ridge magma chambers Ph.

Brook, Doyle Kenneth, Jr. A new proxy for climate and ecophysiological research. Copy 2 copies U Bryant, Donald L. Buble, Goran Microplate kinematics, intraplate deformation and sea level rise in Europe. Galiuro Mountains, Southeastern Arizona: Burchell, Alison Mid-Tertiary volcanic stratigraphy and petrogenesis: Galiuro Mountains, southeastern Arizona: A field-based geochemical reconnaissance M. Butler, Edwin Farnham, Jr. Copy 3 copies U Butzer, Christina M.

A glimpse of the pre-extension history of the Catalina Complex Ph. Copy 2 copies U Calvo, Susanna S. A study of disequilibrium reactions M. Capuano, Regina Marie Chemical mass transfer and solution flow in Wyoming roll type uranium deposits M.

Capuano, Regina Marie Chemical equilibria and fluid flow during compaction diagenesis of organic-rich geopressured sediments Ph. UA Library Repository Capuano, Regina Marie Chemical equilibria and fluid flow during compaction diagenesis of organic-rich geopressured sediments Ph. Copy 2 copies U Caroli, R. Its Genesis and Palaeogeographic Setting. Chakraborty, Sumit Multicomponent cation diffusion in aluminosilicate garnets: Theory, experiments and applications Ph.

Copy 2 copies U Chbouki, Nabil Spatio-temporal characteristics of drought as inferred from tree-ring data in Morocco Ph. Cheng, Song-lin Application of stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon to hydrogeochemical studies, with special reference to Canada del Oro valley and the Tucson basin Ph.

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Clark, Susanmarie Potential for use of cottonwoods in dendrogeomorphology and paleohydrology M. Cleaveland, Malcolm Kent X-ray densitometric measurement of climatic influence on the intra-annual characteristics of southwestern semiarid conifer tree rings Ph. A wall rock alteration and fluid inclusion study M. Copy 3 copies U Cochran, H.

Cretaceous to Present Ph. Vegetational gradients over the last 25, years Ph. Cole, Kevin Conrad Estimation of mass flux and aquifer properties using global positioning system and micro-gravity in the Tucson Basin, southern Arizona Ph. Copy 3 copies U Coleman, Dennis Dale Investigation of a method for determining the rate of strontium diffusion in a potassium feldspar M.

Conkey, Laura Elizabeth Eastern U. Cook, Joseph Relief threshold for eolian sand transport on alluvial fans M. The equipment accelerates streams of charged atomic particles to high velocities in order to sort and analyze them. Carbon dating of bone is one of the most difficult tasks in carbon dating, and requires the most care of any carbonaceous material. This is mainly due to the nature of bone, which is a very porous material.

Certain parts of bone look like a sponge under the microscope. Many dinosaur bones are hard as rock because the original material has been replaced with a silicon material such as quartz. These are "mineralized" or "fossilized". We have found un-mineralized dinosaur bones. We then scrape the outer surface off to get rid of surface contamination, and date the inner remaining material.

One can date just the purified bioapatite, the total organics, or the collagen, or a combination of these, as we did in several cases. This is a remarkable find because collagen, being a soft tissue present in most animals, is supposed to decay in a few thousand years. Collagen is the main protein found in connective tissue of animals. It can make up from 1 to 6 percent of muscle mass.

Triceratops and Hadrosaur femur bones in excellent condition were discovered in Glendive Montana, and our group received permission to saw them in half and collect samples for Carbon testing. Both bones were tested by a licensed lab for presence of collagen. Both bones did in fact contain some collagen. The best process Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was used to date them. Total organic carbon and dinosaur bioapatite was extracted and pretreated to remove potential contaminants, and concordant radiocarbon dates were obtained.

They were similar to radiocarbon dates for ice-age megafauna such as Siberian mammoths, saber tooth tigers of the Los Angeles LaBrea Tarpits, sloth dung, and giant bison. We usually prefer AMS dating because of its inherent superior accuracy, but use the conventional method when large samples are available in order to completely rule out contamination.

This is recommended by a carbon-dating laboratory specialist. Robert Bennett, physicist and co-author, agree that "the AOGS-AGU assembly encourages presentation of reliable data even though the topic may be controversial. This is a very wise policy for the advacement of science and the education of people everywhere.

Thus, we encourage our colleagues to do their own carbon dating of dinosaur bones from museums and university fossil repositories around the world, as well as testing for C in scrapings from dinosaur bones as they are excavated.

We are anxious to see their results presented, just as we have done. Also, we call on the news media and citizens everywhere to urge paleontologists, curators, university faculty, and government scientific agencies to encourage and support further testing for C content in dinosaur remains.

Scientists need to know the actual chronology of the Earth and the age of the fossils. Waldemar Julsrud, a German hardware merchant in Acambaro, Mexico, was riding his horse on the lower slope of El Toro Mountain on a sunny morning in July Suddenly he spotted some partially exposed hewn stones and a ceramic object half buried in the dirt. He dismounted and dug out of the ground the hewn stones as well as a few ceramic pieces.

Julsrud, who was archaeologically astute, immediately realized that these ceramic pieces were unlike anything that he had seen.

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The objects he held in his hand were distinctively different than any other known Indian culture. When a few ceramic fragments were found there, Julsrud hired diggers to excavate. This discovery brought world wide attention from archaeologists who at first mistakenly defined them as Tarascan, but later they were correctly identified as a whole New Indian culture - the Chupicuaro. Julsrud at age sixty-nine was on the brink of making a discovery that may prove to be the greatest archaeological discovery ever made.

He hired a Mexican farmer, Odilon Tinajero, to dig in the area where the ceramic figurines were found and bring him any other similar objects. Soon Tinajero had a wheelbarrow full of ceramic pottery that had been excavated on El Toro Mountain. Charles Hapgood notes that "Julsrud was a shrewd businessman and he now made a deal with Tinajero that is very important for our story.

He told Tinajero that he would pay him one peso worth about 12 cents for each complete piece he brought in. Among the thousands of artifacts excavated were items that turned Julsrud's mansion into "the museum that scared scientists. The objects were made of clay and stone, varying in size from a few inches long to statues three feet high, and dinosaur objects four to five feet long.

In the collection, that now numbered over 20, objects, not one could be found to be a duplicate of another. Each of the clay pieces had been individually made, without molds, skillfully sculptured, and carefully decorated.

Several hundred of the figurines were scientifically identified as representing many species of dinosaurs, including duck billed Trachodon, Gorgosaurus, horned Monoclonius, Ornitholestes, Titanosaurus, Triceratops, Stegosaurus Paleococincus, Diplodocus, Podokosaurus, Struthiomimos, Plesiosaur, Maiasaura, Rhamphorynchus, Iguanodon, Brachiosaurus, Pteranodon, Dimetrodon, Ichtyornis, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Rhynococephalia and other unknown or as yet unidentified dinosaur species.

These remarkable dinosaur figurines threaten orthodox concepts and time scales in many fields of study. Sanderson was amazed in to find that there was an accurate representation of the American dinosaur Brachiosaurus, which was almost totally unknown to the general public at that time. Sanderson wrote about the figurine in the Julsrud collection. It is about a foot tall.

The point is it is an absolutely perfect representation of Brachiosaurus, known only from East Africa and North America. There are a number of outlines of the skeletons in the standard literature but only one fleshed out reconstruction that I have ever seen. This is exactly like it. InArthur Young submitted two of the figurines to Dr. The Masca lab had obtained thermoluminescent dates of up to 2, B. In a letter dated September 13,addressed to Mr. Young, Dr Rainey said: Now after we have had years of experimentation both here and at the lab at Oxford, we have no doubt about the dependability of the thermoluminescent method.

I should also point out, that we were so concerned about the extraordinarily ancient dates of these figures, that Mark Han in our lab made an average of 18 runs on each one of the four samples. Hence, there is a very substantial bit of research in these particular pieces All in all the lab stands on these dates for the Julsrud material, whatever that means in terms of archeological dating in Mexico, or in terms of 'fakes verse's authentic' pieces. They asserted that the ceramics gave off regenerated light signals and could be no more than 30 years old.

A thermoluminescent technician admitted that no other ceramics existed, in his experience, that produced regenerated light signals, and no other thermoluminescent dating of ceramics had ever been done by utilization of a regenerated light signal. In short, the excuse was a hocus pocus, laboratory trick to avoid the obvious conclusion that dinosaurs and man lived together.

John Tierney determined to expose the University of Pennsylvania's shenanigans by testing with standard procedures. Tierney had two fragments of Julsrud-type ceramics excavated at El Toro Mountain in Acambaro, and inin Julsrud's presence, Tierney submitted these pieces to Dr. Bortulot determined the pieces' upper limit age to be 2, years old, thus, invalidating the Masca report which claimed the objects were made thirty to one hundred years ago. John Tierney took a half dozen samples of Julsrud ceramics of different clay composition to a team of experts at Ohio State University.

They consisted of Dr. Caley among the world's most respected archaeological chemistsand Dr. Ehlers mineralogist in the geology department at Ohio State University. The team reported that they could not believe the artifacts were made in modern times, nor could they believe they were made by some amateur who tried to perpetuate a fraud.

Upon my notifying them that they had authenticated Julsrud artifacts, they lapsed into a profound and apparently permanent silence. Video released the program "Jurassic Art", which contained an Acambaro segment that was originally supposed to have been part of NBC's television special, "The Mysterious Origins of Man.

Toward the end of the program, it is revealed that he sent two samples of Julsrud-type ceramics a human figure and a dinosaur figure to an independent Carbon laboratory. Startling results came back. Using radiocarbon datinga team led by Greg Hodgins in the UA's. University of Arizona at Tucson [7] claims an error as. Together, we spearheaded a radiocarbon dating project of samples from the Iron.

We are especially fortunate to have had laboratory representatives from the four. Bartelt states, "According to Robert Kalin, a specialist at the University of Arizona's radiocarbon dating laboratoryHugh Miller's fossils were.

Geosciences, University of Arizona Some interesting and exotic applications of carbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry. At the Arizona laboratorywe have undertaken. Carbon dating techniques using two independent systems that agree. According to Guscin's investigation, the first reference to carbon dating and the. Moroni sent two laboratoriesthat of the University of Arizona in Tucson and the.

Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in the University of Arizona physics department.