Hector - Wikipedia
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Achilles chases Hector around the wall of Troy three times before Athenain the form of Hector's favorite and dearest brother, Deiphobuspersuades Hector to stop running and fight Achilles face to face. After Hector realizes the trick, he knows the battle is inevitable. Wanting to go down fighting, he charges at Achilles with his only weapon, his sword, but misses. Accepting his fate, Hector begs Achilles, not to spare his life, but to treat his body with respect after killing him.
Achilles tells Hector it is hopeless to expect that of him, declaring that "my rage, my fury would drive me now to hack your flesh away and eat you raw — such agonies you have caused me".
After having a dream where Patroclus begs Achilles to hold his funeral, Achilles hosts a series of funeral games in his honour. Achilles relents and promises a truce for the duration of the funeral.
The poem ends with a description of Hector's funeral, with the doom of Troy and Achilles himself still to come. When Penthesileaqueen of the Amazons and daughter of Aresarrives in Troy, Priam hopes that she will defeat Achilles. After his temporary truce with Priam, Achilles fights and kills the warrior queen, only to grieve over her death later.
Once he realized that his distraction was endangering his life, he refocused and killed her. Following the death of Patroclus, Nestor's son Antilochus becomes Achilles' closest companion. When Memnonson of the Dawn Goddess Eos and king of Ethiopiaslays Antilochus, Achilles once more obtains revenge on the battlefield, killing Memnon.
Consequently, Eos will not let the sun rise, until Zeus persuades her.
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The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus echoes that of Achilles and Hector over Patroclus, except that Memnon unlike Hector was also the son of a goddess. Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the Iliad's description of the death of Patroclus and Achilles' reaction to it. The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic Aethiopiswhich was composed after the Iliad, possibly in the 7th century BC.
The Aethiopis is now lost, except for scattered fragments quoted by later authors. Achilles and Patroclus[ edit ] Main article: Achilles and Patroclus Achilles tending Patroclus wounded by an arrow, Attic red-figure kylixc.
In the Iliad, it appears to be the model of a deep and loyal friendship. Homer does not suggest that Achilles and his close friend Patroclus were lovers. In 5th-century BC Athens, the intense bond was often viewed in light of the Greek custom of paiderasteia. In Plato's Symposium, the participants in a dialogue about love assume that Achilles and Patroclus were a couple; Phaedrus argues that Achilles was the younger and more beautiful one so he was the beloved and Patroclus was the lover.
Death[ edit ] The death of Achilles, as predicted by Hector with his dying breath, was brought about by Paris with an arrow to the heel according to Statius. In some versions, the god Apollo guided Paris' arrow. Some retellings also state that Achilles was scaling the gates of Troy and was hit with a poisoned arrow.
All of these versions deny Paris any sort of valour, owing to the common conception that Paris was a coward and not the man his brother Hector was, and Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclusand funeral games were held. He was represented in the Aethiopis as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the river Danube.
Dying Achilles Achilleas thniskon in the gardens of the Achilleion Another version of Achilles' death is that he fell deeply in love with one of the Trojan princesses, Polyxena. Achilles asks Priam for Polyxena's hand in marriage. Priam is willing because it would mean the end of the war and an alliance with the world's greatest warrior.
But while Priam is overseeing the private marriage of Polyxena and Achilles, Paris, who would have to give up Helen if Achilles married his sister, hides in the bushes and shoots Achilles with a divine arrow, killing him. In the Odyssey, Agamemnon informs Achilles of his pompous burial and the erection of his mound at the Hellespont while they are receiving the dead suitors in Hades. In Book 11 of Homer's OdysseyOdysseus sails to the underworld and converses with the shades.
One of these is Achilles, who when greeted as "blessed in life, blessed in death", responds that he would rather be a slave to the worst of masters than be king of all the dead. But Achilles then asks Odysseus of his son's exploits in the Trojan war, and when Odysseus tells of Neoptolemus' heroic actions, Achilles is filled with satisfaction.
Fate of Achilles' armour[ edit ] Ajax carries off the body of Achilles, Attic black-figure lekythos from Sicily c. They competed for it by giving speeches on why they were the bravest after Achilles to their Trojan prisoners, who after considering both men, decided Odysseus was more deserving of the armour. Furious, Ajax cursed Odysseus, which earned him the ire of Athena. Athena temporarily made Ajax so mad with grief and anguish that he began killing sheep, thinking them his comrades.
After a while, when Athena lifted his madness and Ajax realized that he had actually been killing sheep, Ajax was left so ashamed that he committed suicide.
Odysseus eventually gave the armour to Neoptolemusthe son of Achilles. A relic claimed to be Achilles' bronze-headed spear was for centuries preserved in the temple of Athena on the acropolis of PhaselisLycia, a port on the Pamphylian Gulf.
The city was visited in BC by Alexander the Greatwho envisioned himself as the new Achilles and carried the Iliad with him, but his court biographers do not mention the spear. At some point in the war, Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game petteia. The cult of Achilles is illustrated in the BC Polyxena sarcophaguswhere the sacrifice of Polixena near the tumulus of Achilles is depicted. The Ilienses perform sacred ceremonies in honour of them all, and even of Ajax.
But they do not worship Herculesalleging as a reason that he ravaged their country. Early dedicatory inscriptions from the Greek colonies on the Black Sea graffiti and inscribed clay disks, these possibly being votive offeringsfrom Olbia, the area of Berezan Island and the Tauric Chersonese  attest the existence of a heroic cult of Achilles  from the sixth century BC onwards.
In the following chapter of his book, Pliny refers to the same island as Achillea and introduces two further names for it: The "present day" measures, he gives at this point, seem to account for an identification of Achillea or Leuce with today's Snake Island. A second exploration in showed that the construction of a lighthouse had destroyed all traces of this temple.
Achilles - Wikipedia
A fifth century BC black-glazed lekythos inscription, found on the island inreads: The Periplus of the Euxine Sea c. It is said that the goddess Thetis raised this island from the sea, for her son Achilles, who dwells there. Here is his temple and his statue, an archaic work. This island is not inhabited, and goats graze on it, not many, which the people who happen to arrive here with their ships, sacrifice to Achilles.
In this temple are also deposited a great many holy gifts, craters, rings and precious stones, offered to Achilles in gratitude. One can still read inscriptions in Greek and Latin, in which Achilles is praised and celebrated. Some of these are worded in Patroclus' honour, because those who wish to be favored by Achilles, honour Patroclus at the same time. There are also in this island countless numbers of sea birds, which look after Achilles' temple.
Every morning they fly out to sea, wet their wings with water, and return quickly to the temple and sprinkle it. And after they finish the sprinkling, they clean the hearth of the temple with their wings.
Other people say still more, that some of the men who reach this island, come here intentionally. They bring animals in their ships, destined to be sacrificed. Some of these animals they slaughter, others they set free on the island, in Achilles' honour. But there are others, who are forced to come to this island by sea storms. As they have no sacrificial animals, but wish to get them from the god of the island himself, they consult Achilles' oracle.
They ask permission to slaughter the victims chosen from among the animals that graze freely on the island, and to deposit in exchange the price which they consider fair. But in case the oracle denies them permission, because there is an oracle here, they add something to the price offered, and if the oracle refuses again, they add something more, until at last, the oracle agrees that the price is sufficient. The Greeks attack and drive the Trojans back.
Hector must now go out to lead a counter-attack.
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According to Homer  his wife Andromachecarrying in her arms her son Astyanaxintercepts Hector at the gate, pleading with him not to go out for her sake as well as his son's.
Hector knows that Troy and the house of Priam are doomed to fall and that the gloomy fate of his wife and infant son will be to die or go into slavery in a foreign land. With understanding, compassion, and tenderness he explains that he cannot personally refuse to fight, and comforts her with the idea that no one can take him until it is his time to go. The gleaming bronze helmet frightens Astyanax and makes him cry.
Once he left for battle, those in the house began to mourn as they knew he would not return. Hector and Paris pass through the gate and rally the Trojans, raising havoc among the Greeks. Trojan counter-attack[ edit ] Zeus weighs the fates of the two armies in the balance, and that of the Greeks sinks down. The Trojans press the Greeks into their camp over the ditch and wall and would have laid hands on the ships, but Agamemnon rallies the Greeks in person.
The Trojans are driven off, night falls, and Hector resolves to take the camp and burn the ships the next day. The Trojans bivouac in the field. A thousand camp-fires gleamed upon the plain Then Hector rallies the Trojans: Diomedes and Odysseus hinder Hector and win the Greeks some time to retreat, but the Trojans sweep down upon the wall and rain blows upon it.
The Greeks in the camp contest the gates to secure entrance for their fleeing warriors. The Trojans try to pull down the ramparts while the Greeks rain arrows upon them.
Hector smashes open a gate with a large stone, clears the gate and calls on the Trojans to scale the wall, which they do, and Hector goes down, hit by a stone thrown by Ajax, but Apollo arrives from Olympus and infuses strength into "the shepherd of the people", who orders a chariot attack, with Apollo clearing the way.Hector vs Aquiles
Many combats, deaths, boasts, threats, epithets, figures of speech, stories, lines of poetry and books of the Iliad later, Hector lays hold of Protesilaus ' ship and calls for fire.
The Trojans cannot bring it to him, as Ajax kills everyone who tries. Eventually, Hector breaks Ajax' spear with his sword, forcing him to give ground, and he sets the ship on fire. PatroclusAchilles' closest companion, disguised in the armor of Achillesenters the combat leading the Myrmidons and the rest of the Achaeans to force a Trojan withdrawal.
After Patroclus has routed the Trojan army, Hector, with the aid of Apollo and Euphorbuskills Patroclus, vaunting over him: Achilleus, great as he was, could do nothing to help you. My doom has come upon me; let me not then die ingloriously and without a struggle, but let me first do some great thing that shall be told among men hereafter. Glaucus accuses Hector of cowardice for not challenging Ajax.
Stung, Hector calls for the armor, puts it on, and uses it to rally the Trojans. Zeus regards the donning of a hero's armor as an act of insolence by a fool about to die, but it makes Hector strong for now. Hector chooses to remain outside the gates of Troy to face Achilles, partly because had he listened to Polydamas and retreated with his troops the previous night, Achilles would not have killed so many Trojans. When he sees Achilles, however, Hector is seized by fear and turns to flee.
Achilles chases him around the city three times before Hector masters his fear and turns to face Achilles. But Athena, in the disguise of Hector's brother Deiphobushas deluded Hector. He requests from Achilles that the victor should return the other's body after the duel, though Hector himself made it clear he planned to throw the body of Patroclus to the dogs but Achilles refuses. Achilles hurls his spear at Hector, who dodges it, but Athena brings it back to Achilles' hands without Hector noticing.
Hector then throws his own spear at Achilles; it hits his shield and does no injury. When Hector turns to face his supposed brother to retrieve another spear, he sees no one there. At that moment he realizes that he is doomed. Hector decides that he will go down fighting and that men will talk about his bravery in years to come. The desire to achieve ever-lasting honor was one of the most fierce for soldiers living in the timocratic honor-based society of the age.
Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's lifeless body in Troy. A fresco in the AchilleionCorfu Hector pulls out his sword, now his only weapon, and charges. But Achilles grabbed his thrown spears that were delivered to him by the unseen Athena who wore the Hades helmet. Achilles then aimed his spear and pierced the collar bone section of Hector, the only part of the stolen Armor of Achilles that did not protect Hector.
The wound was fatal yet allowed Hector to speak to Achilles.
In his final moments, Hector begs Achilles for an honorable funeral, but Achilles replies that he will let the dogs and vultures devour Hector's flesh. Throughout the Homeric poems, several references are made to dogs, vultures, and other creatures that devour the dead. It can be seen as another way of saying one will die. Hector dies, prophesying that Achilles' death will follow soon: Be careful now; for I might be made into the gods' curse He then fastens the girdle to his chariot and drives his fallen enemy through the dust to the Danaan camp.
For the next twelve days, Achilles mistreats the body, but it remains preserved from all injury by Apollo and Aphrodite. After these twelve days, the gods can no longer stand watching it and send down two messengers: Irisanother messenger god, and Thetis, the mother of Achilles.