How Old Are the Pyramids | Mark Lehner's Team Finds Out | Ancient Egypt Research Associates
The Great Pyramid has been carbon dated by dating some of the mortar in the layer below the outer stones. A guy named Mike Lehrner. Radiocarbon dating of dynastic monuments in Egypt goes back to the very by David H Koch who established the Pyramids Radiocarbon Dating Project. All that can be radiocarbon dated, for example. But primarily we date the pyramids by their position in the development of Egyptian architecture and material.
Well, you're not going to hit the fly exactly, you're going to know which side of the barn, which end of the barn, you know, the buckshot is scattering. And it wasn't scattering at 10, B. But it was significantly older than Egyptologists believed. We were getting dates from the study that were on the average years too old for the Cambridge Ancient History, the Cambridge Ancient History is a reference dates for the kings who built these monuments. So just recently we took some samples, and in collaboration with our Egyptian colleagues, we are now in the process of dating these samples.
The outcome we are going to announce jointly in tandem with our Egyptian colleagues, and maybe we can pick up the subject of the results when we're over there in Egypt together with Dr. Zahi Hawass during the February excavation of the bakeries at Giza.
Is there any evidence at all that an ancient civilization predating the civilization of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure was there? It's a good question. If they were there, you see—civilizations don't disappear without a trace. If archaeologists can go out and dig up a campsite of hunters and gatherers that was occupied 15, years ago, there's no way there could have been a complex civilization at a place like Giza or anywhere in the Nile Valley and they didn't leave a trace, because people eat, people poop, people leave their garbage around, and they leave their traces, they leave the traces of humanity.
Now at Giza, I should tell people how this has come down to me personally. Because I actually went over there with my own notions of lost civilizations, older civilizations from Edgar Cayce. When I worked at the Sphinx over a five-year period we were mapping every nook and cranny, every block and stone, and actually every fissure and crack as well. And I, on a couple of different occasions was able to excavate natural solution cavities in the limestone from which the Sphinx is made.
Natural solution cavities are like holes in Swiss cheese. When the limestone formed from sea sediments 50 million years ago there were bubbles and holes and so on, and fissures later developed from tectonic forces cracking the limestone.
Carbon Dating the Great Pyramid - Do you think radiation from the stones is messing with it?
So for example, right at the hind paw of the Great Sphinx on the north side, this main fissure that cuts through the whole body of the Sphinx and then through the floor opens up to about 30 centimeters wide and about a meter or more in length. And in tandem with Zahi Hawass in '80, we were clearing out this fissure, which now is totally filled with debris again. But we actually reached down to our armpits, lying on our sides on the floor, scooping out this clay.
And in the clay was embedded, not only charcoal, but bits of pottery that were very characteristic of the pottery that was used during the time of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, the 4th Dynasty.
Radiocarbon dating verifies ancient Egypt's history
We did that again on the floor of the Sphinx temple which is built on a lower terrace directly below the paws of the Sphinx.
Directly in front of the Sphinx, we found a solution cavity induring what's called the SRI Project, which has been written about. We actually cleared out this cavity.
We found dolomite pounders, these round balls of hard dolomite that are characteristic hammerstones of the age of the pyramids that they used for roughing out work in stone.
Beyond that, Zahi and I excavated deposits on the floor of the Sphinx, even more substantial, deposits that were sealed by an 18th Dynasty temple, built by Tutankamen's great grandfather when the Sphinx was already 1, years old. They put the foundation of this temple right over deposits of the Old Kingdom, and sealed it, so that they were left there and were not cleared away by earlier excavators in our era in the s.
Zahi and I sort of did a stratographic dissection of these ancient deposits. That is we did very careful trenches, recorded the layers and the different kinds of material. The bottom material sealed by a temple built by Tutankamen's great or great great grandfather, was Old Kingdom construction debris.
They stopped work cutting the outlines of the Sphinx ditch—the Sphinx sits down in this ditch or sanctuary. We were able to show exactly where they stopped work. They didn't quite finish that. We found tools, we found pottery, characteristic of the Old Kingdom time of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
Now the point is this. That it's not just this crevice or that nook and cranny or that deposit underneath this temple, but all over Giza, you find this kind of material. And as I say in looking for our carbon samples, climbing in the pyramids you find the same material embedded in the very fabric of the pyramids, in the mortar bonding the stones together. In principle I accept the restorer theory, though I probably have a different take on it, as well as the idea the Sphinx, related temples, and G2's base at the least, are much older than the pyramids.
But I don't see any reason to suggest any, particularly the pyramids, are 12,yrs old. Its clear orthodox dating is wrong, but I don't think it is that wrong. You might find this thread interesting Pyramid at Meidum-New Perspective As far as an RCD date of 12,yrs is concerned, I don't know where this comes from though it is often repeated, but marine detritus is a component of the limestone blocks themselves: Pyramids packed with fossil shells and not something that just washed up there.
Regarding the water mark stories, regardless of where are they now as they say they were under the casing stones as well, but these are made in the centuries AD by the Arabs whose writings of the time are filled with many tall tales which increasingly favor Biblical ideas such as the Great Flood.
Through him, and with the funding coming from Mr. It took over a year to have the results.
These results are intriguing if only that they raise questions as to when the Khafre pyramid was first re-entered after being sealed off by its builders. Herodotus, who visited Giza in the 5th century BC, apparently saw no entrances to this pyramid .
It has thus always been assumed that the Khafre pyramid was first violated in ancient times, possibly in the First Intermediate Period, and thus its entrances were eventually covered up and forgotten .
But could the pyramid still have been sealed when Herodotus visited Giza in c. And if so, was it first opened and looted in Ptolemaic times? Yet why were the entrances not seen by Diodorus in c. It is known, however, with certainty, that the Khafre pyramid was also entered by the Arabs, possibly in the 13th century AD via a roughly hewn tunnel cut into the north face of the monument above the original upper entrance . No records of this event exist other than the crude graffiti found on the walls of the two chambers.
Oddly, the entrances were again forgotten or covered up, perhaps by rumble from the casing blocks brought down by the violent earthquake that hit the Cairo region in the 13th century AD. The Arab tunnel as well as the two original entrances were rediscovered by Belzoni inwho cleared only the upper original entrance in order to enter the pyramid.
Later, inHoward-Vyse cleared the lower original entrance. The lower date of is intriguing, for it falls precisely at the time Howard-Vyse was cutting his way into this pyramid with explosives, making it thus a strong possibility that the 'finger' came off the hand of one of his unfortunate Arab workers.
More importantly, much remains to be learned and possibly discovered in the still unexplored northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber of the Great Pyramid in which, as we have seen, still rests the wooden rod that was almost certainly left there by the original builders .
And, of course, even more interesting would be the opening of the so-called 'door' at the end of the southern shaft of the chamber which was discovered in by Rudolf Gantenbrink . This 'door', which is made of highly polished limestone, has two small bronze or copper pieces fitted into it, the texture of which much resemble the 'bronze' tool found at the bottom of this shaft in by Dixon.
What lies beyond it, however, is the sixty-four-thousand dollar question of pyramid archaeology.
The second was infunded by the businessman David H. Koch see 'Dating the Pyramids' in Archaeology, vol. Rainer Stadelmann believes that these bones were inserted into the sarcophagus as some sort of 'Osirian offering' long after the pyramid was violated. As far as I can make out, these bones were not Carbon 14 dated to verify this hypothesis. Edwards, The Pyramids of Egypt, ed.
The wooden lid is at the British Museum. The very close and friendly collaboration between the two Dixon brothers and Smyth is attested by the extensive correspondence between them, much of it kept in the archive library of the Edinburgh Astronomical Observatory.
CARBON DATING THE GIZA PYRAMIDS? The Small Relics Found Inside The Pyramids - DE49
See also the epilogue of The Orion Mystery Heinemannwhere some of this correspondence is reproduced. The confirmation that the 'cedar wood' and the granite ball were found in the northern shaft and the 'bronze hook' in the southern shaft is given by John Dixon in an interview he had with Mr.
However in a private letter to Piazzi Smyth dated Nov. Since John Dixon described the 'bronze hook' elsewhere as being a 'tool of some sort', there is an element of doubt in which of the two shafts this particular item was found. John Dixon was not a witness to the opening of the shafts and the discovery of the relics, which were made by his younger brother, Waynman in September Unfortunately a detailed report apparently submitted by Waynman in late to Piazzi Smyth has been lost.
Edwards was quoted as saying: They are completely new to me. I've never met anyone who has ever heard of these items before.
Carol Andrews dated 24 Oct. The search to find the relics began in collaboration with Dr. Bruck of Edinburgh, and Dr.
Spencer of the British Museum. The relics were eventually traced in December Hawass as to the origins of this wood, who claimed it might have been put there in modern times after the shaft was opened by Waynman Dixon in This, however, is most unlikely. This wood measures some 80 cm.
It lies flush against the south wall of the small 'corner length' of the northern shaft some 24 meters up, the main shaft turns sharply to the west, thus making this 'small corner length' and protrudes some 30 cm. This position makes it impossible for it to have been pushed up there in modern times.