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She goes through various stages of love. When in separation from Lord Krishna, she recalls the happy days of union and pines for him. At last they are reunited when she sends him a letter. One more number from the Kuchipudi repertoire that deserves mention is Krishna Shabdam, in which a milkmaid invites Krishna for a rendezvous in myriads of ways giving full scope for the dancer to display the charms of a woman.
Kuchipudi is as ancient as Natya astra 1st century BC in which mention is made of a dance drama form besides solo. There is also historical evidence that the art flourished during the reign of the Satavahanas 2nd century BC. Over the centuries as the performances were dedicated to the worship of Vishnu, the form came to be known as Bhagavata Mela Natakam. Two parallel schools of dance have existed since time immemorial, viz. Nattuva Mela and Natya Mela. The former evolved into Bharat Natyam and the latter into Kuchipudi.
There is difference in the presentation itself. The main difference lies in the abhinaya. The graceful, lasya oriented Kuchipudi gives importance to Vakyartha abhinaya go together. Bharatanatyam on the other hand is Mudra oriented and gives importance to Padartha abhinaya, each word interpreted through mudras. Certain movements are characteristic to Kuchipudi.
Kuchipudi dance drama consists of ancient and contemporary compositions based on Hindu mythology. There are over twenty Sabdams prevalent in the style besides Kalapams, Jatiswaram etc. Lately compositions of Thyagaraja, Annamacharya, Ramadas, Oothukkadu Venkata Subbayyar etal have found their way into the Kuchipudi solo repertoire. Odissi Odissi, also known as Orissiis one of the eight classical dance forms of India. It originates from the state of Orissa, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences.
It was suppressed under the British Raj, but has been reconstructed since India gained independence. It is particularly distinguished from other classical Indian dance forms by the importance it places upon the Tribhangi literally: This dance is characterized by various Bhangas Stancewhich involves stamping of the foot and striking various postures as seen in Indian sculptures.
The first clear picture of Odissi dance is found in the Manchapuri cave in Udayagiri which was carved during the time of Emperor Kharavela. Flanked by two queens, Emperor Kharavela was watching a dance recital where a damsel was performing a dance in front of the court along with the company of female instrumentalists.
Thus, Odissi can be traced back to its origin as secular dance. Later it got attached with the temple culture of Orissa. Starting with the rituals of Jagannath temple in Puri it was regularly performed in Shaivite, Vaishnavite and Sakta temples in Orissa. It proves that Odissi first originated as a court dance. Later, it was performed in all religious places of Jainism as well as Buddhist monasteries.
Odissi was initially performed in the temples as a religious offering by the Maharis who dedicated their lives in the services of God. It has the closest resemblance with sculptures of the Indian temples.
Odissi appears to be the oldest classical dance rooted in rituals and tradition. It is suggested by scholars that Odissi is archaeologically the oldest Indian classical dance form due to sculptural evidence found in the caves.
There are several sculptures of dancers and musicians in Konark Sun Temple and Brahmeswara temple in Bhubaneswar. In the excavated ruins of the Buddhist Ratnagiri hills in Orissa, dating back to the 6th thru 9th centuries, several panels and icons of dance are found resembling present-day Odissi dance.
In the Tantric temples, such as the Hirapur Shrine, many of the yoginis especially are depicted in poses reminiscent of present day Odissi. When Orissa became a big centre of worship of Lord Shiva, it is only natural that dance would be used as a form of worship, since Lord Shiva was a master dancer himself.
He is also known as Nataraj, the Cosmic Lord of Dance. The Shaivite temples of Bhubaneswar display innumerable sculptures in postures of Odissi.
The Vaishnavite Temples such as Jagannath Temple and Konark Sun Temple abound with an array of dancing sculptures carved into the temple walls, giving testimony that a particular school of dancing had continued from the Shaivite art tradition to the Vaishnavite art form. Avanti, Dakshinatya, Panchali, and Odra Magadhi, and the areas where each type is employed. Some scholars have interpreted that Odra Magadhi is "the earliest literary reference" to Odissi. Abhinaya Chandrika written by Maheshvara Mahapatra is a detailed study of the movements of the feet, hands, the standing postures, the movement and the dance repertoire.
The marginal figures of dancers show women in poses and movements similar to the distinctive style of Odissi. For example, in one of the famous illustrated Jain Manuscripts called the Devasanpada Kalpasutra there is depiction of the Samapada, the Tribhangi and the Chuaka. This shows that there was a great deal of mobility between east and west and many migrations took place.
According to some historians, there were groups of dancers who were brought to Puri from Gujarat and Andhra. Mughal and British period During the Mughal rule of India, the duties of the Maharis the temple dancers shifted, as they were employed to entertain the royal family and courtiers in the royal courts. They became associated with concubinage in respect to the king and ceased to be respected solely as servants to Lord Jagannath. Although the British have helped India in several ways, a decline and degradation occurred in all the Indian Classical dance styles during the British period, especially when a bill was passed prohibiting temple dancing.
Most of these dancers, losing their well-deserved place in society, were forced to prostitution to survive in the changing climate of political and cultural oppression of the British. Tradition and Dancers The Odissi tradition existed in three schools: Mahari, Nartaki, and Gotipua. Early Maharis performed mainly Nritta pure dance and Abhinaya interpretation of poetry based on Mantras and Slokas.
Later, Maharis especially performed dance sequences based on the lyrics of Jayadev's Gita Govinda. Bhitari Gauni Maharis were allowed in the inner temple while Bahari Gauni Maharis, though in the temples, were excluded from the sanctum sanctorum. One of the reasons given for the emergence of Gotipuas is that Vaishnavas did not approve of dancing by women.
Gotipuas were boys dressed up as girls and taught the dance by the Maharis. During this period, Vaishnava poets composed innumerable lyrics in Oriya dedicated to Radha and Krishna. Gotipuas danced to these compositions and gradually stepped out of the precincts of the temples. At that time the misuse of devadasis came under strong attack, so that Odissi dance withered in the temples and became unfashionable at court.
Only the remnants of the Gotipua school remained, and the reconstruction of the style required an archaeological and anthropological effort that has tended to foster a conservative purism. These attendants have been known as Maharis great women or Devadasis servants of the lordand have been considered the wives of Lord Jagannath.
Odissi developed through their art. The first evidence of the Mahari institution in Orissa comes from a commemorative inscription by Udyota Kesari, the last King of the dynasty. Raja Anantavarma Chodagangadeva appointed dancing girls for ritual services in the Jagannatha temple in the 11th century, and these Maharis were the ones responsible for keeping the dance alive for centuries. Through the technique of unequal division of weight and firm footwork balancing a fluid upper torso, the dancer achieves a sensuality that is uncommon in other classical dance styles.
Gotipua tradition In the Oriya language Gotipua means single boy. Gotipua dance is performed only by boys who dress up as females. During the rule of King Prataprudra Dev, who was a follower of Sri Chaityana, renewed this dancing tradition by boys, as the Vaishnavas did not approve of dances by females.
Mangalacharana An invocation piece. After paying homage to Lord Jagannath a shloka hymn in praise of some God or Goddess is sung, the meaning of which is brought out through dance. Mangalacharan also includes the Bhumi Pranam salutation to Mother Earth which is offered to Mother Earth as a way of begging forgiveness for stamping on her and the Trikhandi Pranam or the three-fold salutation - above the head to the Gods, in front of the face to the gurus and in front of the chest to the audience.
It is one of the 64 furious-aspects of Lord Shiva known. The origin of dance is believed to be from Tantrism that had flourished in Orissa. Linga Purana and Mahanirvanatantra give an elaborate description of Batuka Bhairava in three aspects, and the results of their worship have also been explained elaborately in the texts.
Battu Nrutya is an item of pure Nrutya Dance and remains the most difficult item of Odissi dance. The dance begins with a series of sculpturesque poses depicting such actions as the playing of a Veena LuteMardala or Pakhawaj DrumKaratala Cymbals and Venu Flutethat brings out the interrelationships between this dance and the dance sculptures adorning the temples of Orissa. These poses are stringed together with steps in different rhythms. There is no song or recitation accompanying the dance, but throughout the item a refrain of rhythmic syllables is provided.
The accompanying refrain is in the form of one line of Ukuta and as this is recited in the Tala, different Jathi-patterns are improvised and are executed with the feet. Some Tala variations are introduced and each sequence of the dance terminates with a Tehdi known as Katam.
The last sequence is always in Jhula Pahapata Tala and is performed with a fast tempo.
This is applicable not only to the dance, but also to the music, which accompanies it. Both the dance and the music evolve in complexity as the dancer traces multiple patterns in space, interpreting the music dexterously in the multilayered dimensions of taal rhythm and laya speed. Abhinaya An expressional dance which is an enactment of a song or poetry, where a story conveyed to the audience through mudras hand gesturesbhavas facial expressioneye movement and body movement.
The dance is fluid, very graceful, and sensual. Abhinaya can be performed on verses in Sanskrit or Oriya language. The verses are extremely ornate in content and suggestion. Most of the Abhinaya compositions are based on the Radha-Krishna theme. The beginning pieces are dedicated to Lord Jagannath - an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Some of the much appreciated dance dramas composed by Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra are: Usually Hindu mythologies are chosen as themes, but experimenting with the theme and form in recent years have led to extremely unique creations.
Odissi Dance Drama Moksha The concluding item of a recital. This dance represents a spiritual culmination for the dancer who soars into the realm of pure aesthetic delight.
Movement and pose merge to create ever new patterns, ever new designs in space and time. The dance moves onto a crescendo that is thrilling to both, the eye and the ear. This dance form traces its origins to the nomadic bards of ancient northern India, known as Kathaks, or storytellers. Its form today contains traces of temple and ritual dances, and the influence of the bhakti movement. From the 16th century onwards it absorbed certain features of Persian dance and Central Asian dance which were imported by the royal courts of the Mughal era.
The name Kathak is derived from the Sanskrit word katha meaning story, and katthaka in Sanskrit means he who tells a story, or to do with stories. Pure Dance Nritta The structure of a conventional Kathak performance tends to follow a progression in tempo from slow to fast, ending with a dramatic climax. A short dance composition is known as a tukra, a longer one as a toda. There are also compositions consisting solely of footwork.
Often the performer will engage in rhythmic 'play' with the time-cycle, for example splitting it into triplets or quintuplets which will be marked out on the footwork, so that it is in counterpoint to the rhythm on the percussion. All compositions are performed so that the final step and beat of the composition lands on the 'sam' pronounced as the English word 'sum' and meaning even or equal, archaically meaning nil or first beat of the time-cycle.
Most compositions also have 'bols' rhythmic words which serve both as mnemonics to the composition and whose recitation also forms an integral part of the performance. This recitation is known as padhant. Some compositions are aurally very interesting when presented this way. The bols can be borrowed from tabla e. Often tukras are composed to highlight specific aspects of the dance, for example gait, or use of corners and diagonals, and so on.
A popular tukra type is the chakkarwala tukra, showcasing the signature spins of Kathak. Because they are generally executed on the heel, these differ from ballet's pirouettes which are properly executed on the toe or ball of the foot. The spins usually manifest themselves at the end of the tukra, often in large numbers: These tukras are popular with audiences because they are visually exciting and are executed at great speed. Other compositions can be further particularised as follows: Music to Kathak is normally provided by tabla and sitar players 1.
Vandana, the dancer begins with an invocation to the gods; 2. Thaat, the first composition of a traditional performance; the dancer performs short plays with the time-cycle, finishing on sam in a statuesque standing thaat pose; 3. Aamad, from the Persian word meaning 'entry'; the first introduction of spoken rhythmic pattern or bol in to the performance; 4.
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Salaami, related to Ar. Kavitt, a poem set on a time-cycle; the dancer will perform movements that echo the meaning of the poem; 6. Paran, a composition using bols from the pakhawaj instead of only dance or tabla bols; 7. Parmelu or Primalu, a composition using bols reminiscent of sounds from nature, such as kukuthere birdsjhijhikita sound of ghunghrutigdadigdig strut of peacock etc.
Gat, from the word for 'gait, walk' showing abstract visually beautiful gaits or scenes from daily life; 9. Lari, a footwork composition consisting of variations on a theme, and ending in a tihai; Tihai, usually a footwork composition consisting of a long set of bols repeated thrice so that the very last bol ends dramatically on 'sam'. Expressive Dance Nritya Aside from the traditional expressive or abhinaya pieces performed to a bhajan, ghazal or thumri, Kathak also possesses a particular performance style of expressional pieces called bhaav bataanaa lit.
It is a mode where abhinaya dominates, and arose in the Mughal court. It is more suited to the mehfil or the darbar environment, because of the proximity of the performer to the audience, who can more easily see the nuances of the dancer's facial expression.
Consequently, it translates to the modern proscenium stage with difficulty. A thumri is sung, and once the mood is set, a line from the thumri is interpreted with facial abhinaya and hand movements while seated.
This continues for an indefinite period, limited only by the dancer's interpretative abilities. Shambhu Maharaj was known to interpret a single line in many different ways for hours but all the Maharaj family Acchan Maharaj, Lachhu Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Achhan Maharaj's son Birju Maharaj have found much fame for the naturalness and innovativeness of their abhinaya.
It is one of two main sub-genres of Indian classical music that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions; the other sub-genre being Hindustani music, which emerged as a distinct form because of Persian and Islamic influences in North India. Although improvisation plays an important role, Carnatic music is mainly sung through compositions, especially the kriti or kirtanam - a form developed between the 14th and 20th centuries by composers such as Purandara Dasa and the Trinity of Carnatic music.
Carnatic music is also usually taught and learnt through compositions. Contemporary Dance Contemporary Dance emerged in the s as the dance form that is combining the modern dance elements and the classical ballet elements.
It can use elements from non-western dance cultures, such as African dancing with bent knees as a characteristic trait, and Butoh, Japanese contemporary dancing that developed in the s. Other typical instruments used in performances may include the ghatam, kanjira, morsing, venu flute, veena, and chitraveena. The most outstanding performances, and the greatest concentration of Carnatic musicians, are found in the city of Chennai.
Hindustani classical music Hindi: It is a tradition that originated in Vedic ritual chants and has been evolving since the 12th century CE, primarily in what is now North India and Pakistan, and to some extent in Bangladesh, Nepal and Afghanistan. Today, it is one of the two subgenres of Indian classical music, the other being Carnatic music, the classical tradition of South India.
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