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Circumcision is not usually performed at this stage because of the associated inflammation, but may be required later if the foreskin remains tight. Circumcision to prevent future disease Prevention of disease is the second most commonly given reason for circumcision after religious reasons, although the evidence that it has any beneficial effect on future health is very poor.
The practice is, more likely, rooted in cultural traditions, although western societies may find this an uncomfortable conclusion. Penile cancer Cancer of the penis is an extremely rare disease and, in the early part of the last century, was almost unheard of in circumcised men.
However, there is some evidence that circumcision may only offer protection from penile cancer if done in childhood, and adult surgery may not offer any protection. Poor personal hygiene, smoking and exposure to wart virus human papilloma virus increase the risk of developing penile cancer at least as much as being uncircumcised. Circumcised men are more at risk from penile warts than uncircumcised men, and the risk of developing penile cancer is now almost equal in the two groups.
Therefore, routine circumcision cannot be recommended to prevent penile cancer. Far more effective and reliable methods than circumcision exist to reduce the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, such as the use of condoms and adoption of safer sexual practices. Thus circumcision cannot be recommended to prevent these infections. Circumcision may be appropriate as a routine preventive measure only in regions that have a high rate of HIV infection, such as sub-Saharan Africa.
The existing evidence is inadequate to recommend circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure in the UK. Further studies over the past 50 years have had contradictory conclusions, with experts enthusiastically championing the case for and against circumcision. The evidence is inadequate to recommend it as a preventive measure against cervical cancer. One in uncircumcised infants will develop a UTI, compared with 1 in circumcised infants.
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A UTI is not usually a great risk to health, so it does not seem reasonable to perform a surgical procedure on infants to reduce the risk of one developing UTI. Circumcision as an act of religious dedication The circumcision of male children is a central feature of both Judaism and Islam. It is also important in many African and New World cultures. An increasing number of committed Jewish and Muslim people reject circumcision on ethical grounds, although they are certainly the minority at present.
Attitudes to circumcision may provoke fierce hostility within families and among communities. In the past, wars have been fought, and thousands have died, to preserve the right to circumcise when rulers from other cultures forbade it.
Judaism In the book of Genesis Traditional religious circumcision is performed by a mohel pronounced mo-hell in Hebrew or moyle in Yiddish. It is usually carried out on the eighth day after birth, unless there is a danger to the child's health, in which case it should be delayed until that danger has passed.
In the UK, mohelim attend 40 to 50 circumcisions and have to pass practical and theoretical examinations during their training before performing circumcision alone. Islam The divine law or sharia defines every aspect of Muslim life. It is based upon the Holy Koran, the hadith the sayings of the Prophet Mohammed and the sunnah Prophet's tradition.
All Muslims agree that these are the three sources of Islamic law, but different groups interpret their application in different ways. Circumcision is not mentioned in the Koran, but has the status of sunnah. Only the Shafiite school of law regards circumcision as obligatory wajibwhile the Hanafite, Jafarite, Malikite, Hanbalite and Zaidite regard it as only recommended, because it is sunnah.
Even those who consider circumcision an obligatory duty for themselves do not see it as an essential requirement for others to become a Muslim. About twenty NU women activists Muslimat from towns nearby Surabaya were interviewed during a celebration there.
They said it was practiced in their family and around them. In Central Java, it seems that remote villages are less touched by the practice than small towns. A young 'Aisyiyah leader Muhammadiyah residing in Solo said she was not circumcised herself: It is a city custom rather than a rural custom, maybe a question of finance in a region where the tetesan ceremony is big and costly.
If cities were the first to experience female circumcision, it is also true that they were the first to reject it, as elite Muslim circles tend not to have daughters circumcised. This is true not only for "modernist" Muhammadiyah families but also for the "traditionalist" Nahdlatul Ulama. Thus Wahid Hasyim's family did not practice female circumcision. This phenomenon has apparently occurred more frequently in Muhammadiyah families.
He argued that "it is not Islamic but an Arab custom to prevent wives to have an orgasm". Urbanization seems to have had the reverse effect on lower classes: Thus, in cities, it seems no longer limited to the strictly devout taat santri groups, as reported by Snouck Hurgronje and Schrieke.
One factor which has recently contributed to the spread of female circumcision, is medicalization. Clinics now offer the service of ear piercing tindikvaccination, and child delivery in one package. It is no longer being performed by the dukun-bayi but by simple midwives bidan at hospitals or clinics. The five clinics in Gresik and Jakarta contacted during this research, said they offered the service, and most clients wanted it to be performed.
Christian clinics also make it available to their Muslim clients. The coupling of circumcision with ear piercing for girls is increasingly taken for granted, to the point that the term sunat is sometimes used for ear piercing.
Female circumcision has thus seemingly become a regular service in cities. With the growing Islamization of Indonesia in the s, social pressure in favour of female circumcision has increased. One Jakarta woman lawyer reported: I had seen the blood. For my daughter, I decided not to have her circumcised, but my mother insisted, my sister also.
Finally, I gave up and, at 6 months, I brought my daughter to the hospital. She was circumcised and I cried. The nurse of a Nahdlatul Ulama clinic in South Jakarta told of one Christian mother who accepted that her daughter be circumcised out of doubt of what was best for the child.
Families with an Islamic modernist background who had started to abandon the practice are going back to it. Thus, a year old woman from Bukittinggi, who was educated in the famous modernist school Diniah Putri Padang Panjang, a pupil of Rahmah Elyunusiyah, said she did not have her daughters circumcised.
But her own children had their daughters Archipel 56, Paris, Female Circumcision in Indonesia circumcised soon after birth. She could not say for sure, but answered her husband did not ask her to do it, and she does not remember whether Uni Rahmah disagreed to it or not.
Today, her own children had their daughters circumcised. Timing and ceremony Today, female circumcision is mostly called sunat or khitan perempuan in Java. Khifadh is less frequent. In Cianjur Sundafemale circumcision takes place between the 7th day after birth and 3 months, and girls are mostly circumcised on the 40th day, at the time of the nyukuran ceremony. Compared to Schrieke's reports, it thus seems that, in Java, girls are circumcised at an earlier age than before, although there are still regions in Central Java where it is practiced at 7 or 9 years, before puberty Yogyakarta, Solo, Purwokerto and Pemalang.
In Ciamis, West Java, female circumcision was still called the Gusaran ceremony until the s, the same ceremony reported by Snouck Hurgronje. It was performed at the age of 5 or 7 years. For the well-to-do Sundanese in Ciamis, the ceremony then used to be as solemn as for boys: She would be driven again around the village in the cart, wearing her new dress, up to the place of the celebration, where a specialist paraji would perform the operation.
With a knife, a small incision no removal would be made to the clitoral upper part, and her teeth would be filed. This kind of ceremony has disappeared in the past twenty years, so that girls are now circumcised by the midwife, together with the piercing of her ears.
In Yogyakarta, the tetesan ceremony is still carried out with pomp among the well-to-do priyayi. Among the Javanese santri, discretion continues to be the rule as in the early 20th century. It is either not celebrated at all or celebrated very low key, at most with a selamatan kecil, over a reading of Bismillah and doa. One Muslimat woman in Situbondo East Java said it occurred together with the Cukuran hair cut ceremony ; another woman in the area called the ceremony Seraweh, which included ear piercing.Demi Wanita Sunat Tempo Jaman Dulu
In Semarang, a small ceremony at the age of 40 days is called Rasulan. These small ceremonies tend to disappear, however, as girls are circumcised directly after birth at the hospital or the clinic. Overall, the secrecy surrounding the practice continues, as reported by Snouck Hurgronje and Schrieke. Female circumcision is no occasion to celebrate and is coupled with other rituals like hair cutting. Some men noted it was a secret rahasia or it was done discreetly sembunyi-sembunyi. Others were visibly embarrassed by the question Semarang and Lombok.
The secrecy surrounding the practice may be best illustrated by the fact that Abdurrahman Wahid was incredulous when he learned the practice existed in Indonesia. An anthropologist who asked his Acehnese friend about the existence of female circumcision in his region saw how the man wrote to his wife to inquire candidly about the matter, and later received an abrupt answer that this was none of his business.
It is also most remarkable that many women in their thirties and forties interviewed did not know whether they had themselves been circumcised, saying they would ask their mothers. If one assumes that the practice is established, at least in average santri milieus in Sunda and Java in the post-independence period, this would tend to show that female circumcision is being done at a very early age and quietly.
In contrast to this secrecy, abangan families in search of a more "orthodox" Islamic profile celebrate female circumcision with ceremonial meals selamatan and even pomp, something disapproved of by Javanese santri women.
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Outside Java, girls are still circumcised at a later age. In Banjarmasin, one respondent spoke of a ceremony at the age 3 or 4 years ; a Buginese living in Sumbawa Besar spoke of circumcision at 3 years with a ceremony called Matoba. In Bukittinggi, Minangkabau, the age mentioned was 4 or 5 years with the circumcision being performed in a discreet manner.
Hanis Berkhatan.. by Zaini Abdul Hamid
A old woman from Bukittinggi said she was circumcised at the age of 7. In Ujung Pandang, most young families said they had their daughters circumcised at an early age in the clinic, but in villages, it was done at a later age.
In Jambi, Bungotebo, one NU activist said that a girl marrying a Muslim had to be circumcised - at the age of 17, just before marriage. This was the oldest age mentioned by all respondents. More systematic research needs to Archipel 56, Paris, Female Circumcision in Indonesia be done on the outer islands.
However, given the increased movements of population following the transmigration program of the New Order, the picture emerging might be more blurred than in the s. The operation The way girls are circumcised today differs little from the descriptions given in Schrieke's reports, except that more is done to prevent infection by the use of Betadine, which has replaced tumeric kunyit in most cases. A variety of terms were used to describe the removal of the clitoral part.
Cutting memotong off the tiny upper part of the clitoris. This is the most frequent method in and outside of Java: Tearing off mencokel, nyokelin Cianjur Sunda and Jakarta. A curved needle is entered into the upper part ujung of the clitoris and the needle is then pulled up, tearing a small part of the clitoris a midwife in a Jakarta NU clinic.
Rubbing off dikorek the slem or lendir Jombang or the skin Tegal, Jember, Sepanjang, Situbondo, Madura of the clitoris. In villages outside Ujung Pandang, it was rubbed dikerik bakai betungwith the skin of a bamboo. Piercing with a needle menusuk jarum or the edge of a knife to extract a single drop of blood: Asked about the pain of the child, most answered it was only slight perihif not absent, the child crying "out of fear".
Since it is mostly practiced on babies, the amount pain inflicted is indeed hard to measure. Two persons spoke of real pain: A woman from the Bukittinggi area remembered how painful her circumcision had been, when she was 7 years old. She could feel the pain and cried. Then she was helped to stand up and walk.
Her genitals were so sore that she walked clumsily, and rearranged her dress so it would not touch the sore part. She did not dare go to the toilet for hours. The motives Confirming the reports by Schrieke in the s, religious motives are cited by all respondents in to explain female circumcision. For most of them, moreover, there is no secondary motive like hygiene or sexual libido restriction.
The religious motive is thus the main argument, but with an interesting variation: When asked why their daughters were circumcised, they replied: In Cianjur, the respondent was surprised that Muslim girls in other Islamic countries were not circumcised and commented: Thus female circumcision seems confirmed as one basic element of religious faith, as seriously observed as the abstention of pork and maybe more so than the five-prayers in certain population groups.
There, we find its function as an "Islamizing" practice, equal or more important than the five pillars. More research is needed to know how widespread is this primordial importance given to female circumcision. It is also mostly in santri circles including from Banten, Denanyar, Jombang, Sepanjang-Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Jember that the restrictive effect of female circumcision on a woman's sexual libido syawat is cited.
Nyai Achmad Siddiq thus has started recommending that baby girls be circumcised in the Muslimat-managed clinic in Jember, as a prevention against the increased " aggressiveness " of young women she was noticing around Jember.
In Cianjur Sundaa middle-aged man knowledgeable in Sundanese traditions said that if not removed, the upper part of the clitoris would make the girl unable to control her sexuality. But his wife countered immediately that female circumcision would allow women to feel more sexual pleasure, which would in turn please her husband.
These kinds of contradictory statements came frequently in interviews. Many Muslimat women said female circumcision had to be done in " a very careful way " so as not to disturb the girl's sexual pleasure when grown up. Women from Pasuruan, Cilacap, Tegal, Pemalang, Probolinggo and Semarang denied girls were circumcised to lessen their libido. One NU activist from Probolinggo argued that, if it was really so, " nobody would want to do it".
Some women even countered that the practice increased a woman's pleasure Jember, Jambi, Mojosari, Situbondo-Madura. One man responded it was meant to increase the man's satisfaction Jambi. An argument that had a greater consensus was that girls had to be circumcised for purification and reasons of cleanliness kebersihan. This necessity to purify appeared in interviews of women, but more frequently of men in Jambi, Tegal, Bengkulu, Tambakrejau-Semarang, Lampung.
In Cianjur Sundathe upper part of the clitoris that is removed is called lalamadna or kulit ari, and it is considered an impurity kekotor or kotoran. There is one interesting remark to make about these interviews: A Muslimat activist from around Banjarmasin said that female circumcision was "adat, from early days, not Islam". Today, motives are various and often pragmatic, as can be seen from this Modernist Islamic family where both the married son and the married daughter of Dian, the old woman from Bukittinggi, had their daughters circumcised in a clinic, soon after birth.
None had witnessed the operation. Dian's son said he had his daughter circumcised because it was " sunat", whereas his wife argued it was cheaper this way: Dian's daughter said she let her daughter be circumcised to follow the directives of the hospital.
Her husband did not know of the circumcision. The point of view of Muslim organizations The confusing divergence of views exposed above actually reflect those of the Indonesian official and non-official Islamic organisations. The Nahdlatul Ulama The largest Islamic organization, the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama, has issued afatwa on circumcision only once in its 72 years of existence. At its first congress in Surabaya, October 21,it answered a question on whether khitan was allowed to be performed a few days after birth, and said it was permitted.
There was no precision on whether it was meant for boys or girls. Maaruf Amin, said in an interview that female circumcision is only recommended sunnah. He cited as reference the yellow book kitab kuning Fath al-mu'in Archipel 56, Paris, Female Circumcision in Indonesia which means " opening assistance " from Zainuddin Malibari, a fiqh authority in Shafi'ite Islam, who worked in the second half of the XVIth century.
But the current Nahdlatul Ulama executive chairman, Abdurrahman Wahid, expressed disapprobation as a non-religious custom. However, a recent survey shows that 5 of 8 NU-linked ulama interviewed in Jakarta held it was obligatory for girls as, otherwise, impurity would make their praying and fasting not valid This variety of opinions is also to be found among NU's women leaders. The Fatayat chairwoman Sri Mulyati Asrori defended female circumcision because "no part of the body is damaged in Indonesia".
But Muslimat Chairwoman Aisyah Hamid disproved of it, and added it was not practiced in her family. For her, it can only be permitted if "it brings no pain nor infirmity to the girl".
Syakruni, a former Kalimantan-born Muslimat chairwoman, justified it as part of adat. The paradox that it is widely practiced despite the non compulsory character of the practice was noted by one former activist. Thus, in Malang, Fatayat cofounder Chuzaimah said: Browser will create spoken for you in the woman that your bad compatibility has you.
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