Pottery Dating - Clevedon & District Archaeological Society
We can date pottery based on a stratigraphic sequence: this means of the world: changes in the surface decoration styles and in the shape of. In addition to being an excellent tool for dating, pottery enables researchers to . to attribute and examine the style of specific painters or groups, vase scholars. David Dawson – 'Pots – Evidence of Dating and so much more' contextual seriation theory – by painstakingly linking pottery styles to the reigns of Pharaohs.
By — BCE in the Dawenkou culture shapes later familiar from Chinese ritual bronzes begin to appear. One exceptional ritual site, Niuheliang in the far north, has produced numerous human figurines, some about half life-size. The dividing line between the two and true porcelain wares is not a clear one. This type vessels became widespread during the following Jin dynasty — and the Six Dynasties.
Green-glazed potteryusing lead-glazed earthenware in part of the later sancai formula, was used for some of these, though not for wares for use, as the raw lead made the glaze poisonous. Sui and Tang dynasties, — AD[ edit ] A sancai glazed offering tray, late 7th or early 8th century, Tang dynasty — During the Sui and Tang dynasties to ADa wide range of ceramics, low-fired and high-fired, were produced. These included the last significant fine earthenwares to be produced in China, mostly lead-glazed sancai three-colour wares.
Many of the well-known lively Tang dynasty tomb figureswhich were only made to be placed in elite tombs close to the capital in the north, are in sancai, while others are unpainted or were painted over a slip; the paint has now often fallen off.
The sancai vessels too may have been mainly for tombs, which is where they are all found; the glaze was less toxic than in the Han, but perhaps still to be avoided for use at the dining table. In the south the wares from the Changsha Tongguan Kiln Site in Tongguan are significant as the first regular use of underglaze painting; examples have been found in many places in the Islamic world.
However the production tailed off and underglaze painting remained a minor technique for several centuries. This was also the case with the northern porcelains of kilns in the provinces of Henan and Hebeiwhich for the first time met the Western as well as the Eastern definition of porcelain, being a pure white and translucent.
The vases are made of clay. Liao, Song, Western Xia and Jin dynasties, —[ edit ] Cloud-shaped pillow with iron-brown tiger design on white slip coating. The pottery of the Song dynasty has retained emormous prestige in Chinese tradition, especially that of what later became known as the " Five Great Kilns ". The artistic emphasis of Song pottery was on subtle glaze effects and graceful shapes; decoration was mostly in shallow relief.
Yue ware was succeeded by Northern Celadon and then in the south Longquan celadon. White and black wares were also important, especially in Cizhou wareand there were polychrome types, but the finer types of ceramics, for the court and the literati, remained monochrome, relying on glaze effects and shape. A wide variety of styles evolved in various areas, and those that were successful were imitated in other areas. Whitish porcelain continued to be improved, and included the continuation of Ding ware and the arrival of the qingbai which would replace it.
Ding ware bowl Wan with flower sprays The Liao, Xia and Jin were founded by non-literate, often nomadic people who conquered parts of China. Pottery production continued under their rule, but their own artistic traditions merged to some extent with the Chinese, producing characteristic new styles.
The pottery of all these regions was mainly high-fired, with some earthenware produced because of its lower cost and more colourful glazes. Some of the clay used was what is called kaolinite in the West. In some cases stoneware was preferred for its darker colour or better working qualities.
Potteries used the local clay, and when that was dark or coarse and they wanted a fine white body, they covered the clay with white slip before applying glaze. Yuan dynasty, —[ edit ] Early blue and white porcelainc.
This has been described as the "last great innovation in ceramic technology". Export markets readily accepted the style, which has continued to be produced ever since, both in China and around the world. Because of this, improvements in water transportation and the re-unification under Mongol rule, pottery production started to concentrate near deposits of kaolinsuch as Jingdezhenwhich gradually became the pre-eminent centre for producing porcelain in a variety of styles, a position it has held ever since.
The scale of production greatly increased, and the scale and organization of the kilns became industrialized, with ownership by commercial syndicates, much division of labourand other typical features of mass production. Kilns investigated new techniques in design and shapes, showing a predilection for colour and painted design, and an openness to foreign forms.
Prior to this the cobalt had been brilliant in colour, but with a tendency to bleed in firing; by adding manganese the colour was duller, but the line crisper. Xuande porcelain is now considered among the finest of all Ming output. This esteem for relatively recent ceramics excited much scorn on the part of literati scholars such as Wen ZhenhengTu Longand Gao Lianwho is cited below ; these men fancied themselves arbiters of taste and found the painted aesthetic 'vulgar.
Thus aside from supplying porcelain for domestic use, the kilns at Jingdezhen became the main production centre for large-scale porcelain exports to Europe starting with the reign of the Wanli Emperor — By this time, kaolin and pottery stone were mixed in about equal proportions.
Kaolin produced wares of great strength when added to the paste; it also enhanced the whiteness of the body—a trait that became a much sought after property, especially when form blue-and-white wares grew in popularity. These sorts of variations were important to keep in mind because the large southern egg-shaped kiln varied greatly in temperature. Around BC the production of figured vases came to an end. The following Late Corinthian Style II is characterized by vases only with ornaments, usually painted with a silhouette technique.
It was succeeded by the red-figure style, which however did not attain a particularly high quality in Corinth. Black-figure, white-background lekythos by the Diosphos Painter showing Achilles in a chariot dragging the corpse of Hector behind him, ca.
High quality Attic black-figure vases have a uniform, glossy, pitch-black coating and the color-intensive terra cotta clay foundation has been meticulously smoothened. The most outstanding Attic artists elevated vase painting to a graphic art, but a large number of average quality and mass-market products were also produced. The outstanding significance of Attic pottery comes from their almost endless repertoire of scenes covering a wide range of themes.
These provide rich testimonials especially in regard to mythology, but also to daily life. On the other hand, there are virtually no images referring to contemporary events. Such references are only occasionally evident in the form of annotations, for example when kalos inscriptions are painted on a vase. Vases were produced for the domestic market on the one hand, and were important for celebrations or in connection with ritual acts.
On the other hand, they were also an important export product sold throughout the Mediterranean area. For this reason most of the surviving vases come from Etruscan necropolises. The scene on the neck shows Heracles stabbing Nessos. The scene on the belly shows events associated with Perseus. Influenced by pottery from Corinth, which offered the highest quality at the time, Attic vase painters switched to the new technology between about BC and the end of the century.
At first they closely followed the methods and subjects of the Corinthian models. The Painter of Berlin A 34 at the beginning of this period is the first identified individual painter. The first artist with a unique style was the Nessos Painter.
With his Nessos amphora he created the first outstanding piece in the Attic black-figure style. One of his vases was also the first known Attic vase exported to Etruria.
- Japanese pottery and porcelain
- Ceramic art
- Greek Vase-Painting, an introduction
In contrast to the Corinthian painters he used double and even triple incised lines to better depict animal anatomy. A double-scored shoulder line became a characteristic of Attic vases. The possibilities inherent in large pieces of pottery such as belly amphoras as carriers for images were also recognized at an early date.
Other important painters of this pioneer time were the Piraeus Painterthe Bellerophon Painter and the Lion Painter. Early Attic vases[ edit ] Name vase a dinos by the Gorgon Painter. Perseus pursued by gorgonsca. An early Athenian development was the horse-head amphora, the name coming from the depiction of horse heads in an image window.
Image windows were frequently used in the subsequent period and were later adopted even in Corinth. The Cerameicus Painter and the Gorgon Painter are associated with the horse-head amphoras. The Corinthian influence was not only maintained, but even intensified. The animal frieze was recognized as generally obligatory and customarily used. This had economic as well as stylistic reasons, because Athens competed with Corinth for markets. In addition to following Corinthian models, Athens vases also showed local innovations.
Thus at the beginning of the 6th century BC a "Deianaira type" of lekythos arose, with an elongated, oval form. He was a very productive artist who seldom made use of mythological themes or human figures, and when he did, always accompanied them with animals or animal friezes.
Some of his other vases had only animal representations, as was the case with many Corinthian vases. This group decorated types of vases which were new to Athens, namely lekanes, kotyles and kothons.
The most important innovation was however the introduction of the komast cupwhich along with the "prekomast cups" of the Oxford Palmette Class stands at the beginning of the development of Attic cups.
Important painters in this group were the elder KX Painter and the somewhat less talented KY Painterwho introduced the column krater to Athens. The last significant representative of the first generation of painters was Sophilos — BCwho is the first Attic vase painter known by name. In all, he signed four surviving vases, three as painter and one as potter, revealing that at this date potters were also painters of vases in the black-figure style.
A fundamental separation of both crafts seems to have occurred only in the course of the development of the red-figure style, although prior specialization cannot be ruled out. Sophilos makes liberal use of annotations. He apparently specialized in large vases, since especially dinos and amphoras are known to be his work.
Much more frequently than his predecessors, Sophilos shows mythological scenes like the funeral games for Patroclus. The decline of the animal frieze begins with him, and plant and other ornaments are also of lower quality since they are regarded as less important and thus receive scant attention from the painter. But in other respects Sophilos shows that he was an ambitious artist.
On two dinos the marriage of Peleus and Thetis is depicted. However, Sophilos does without any trimmings in the form of animal friezes on one of his two dinos,  and he does not combine different myths in scenes distributed over various vase surfaces. It is the first large Greek vase showing a single myth in several interrelated segments. A special feature of the dinos is the painter's application of the opaque white paint designating women directly on the clay foundation, and not as usual on the black gloss.
The figure's interior details and contours are painted in a dull red. This particular technique is rare, only found in vases painted in Sophilos' workshop and on wooden panels painted in the Corinthian style in the 6th century BC. Sophilos also painted one of the rare chalices a variety of goblet and created the first surviving series of votive tablets.
He himself or one of his successors also decorated the first marriage vase known as a lebes gamikos to be found. Only a few painters took care with them, and they were generally moved from the center of attention to less important areas of vases.
This krater is considered to be the most famous Greek painted vase. Mythological events are depicted in several friezes, with animal friezes being shown in secondary locations. Several iconographic and technical details appear on this vase for the first time. Many are unique, such as the representation of a lowered mast of a sailing ship; others became part of the standard repertoire, such as people sitting with one leg behind the other, instead of with the traditional parallel positioning of the legs.
They provide evidence for other innovations by Kleitias, like the first depiction of the birth of Athena or of the Dance on Crete. He favored large figures and was the first to create images showing the harnessing of a chariot. Another innovation was to place a tongue design on a white background under the vase lip. The Burgon Group is also significant, being the source of the first totally preserved Panathenaic amphora.
The abduction of Thetis. Peleus forces access to the burning altar where Nereids dance, overlap frieze on a Siana cup by the C Painter, c. While the Komast Group produced shapes other than cups, some craftsmen specialized in cup production after the time of the first important exemplifier of Siana cups, the C Painter BC.
The cups have a higher rim than previously and a trumpet-shaped base on a relatively short hollow stem. For the first time in Attic vase painting the inside of the cup was decorated with framed images tondo.
There were two types of decoration. In the "double-decker" style the cup body and the lip each have separate decorations. In the "overlap" style the image extends over both body and lip. After the second quarter of the 6th century BC there was more interest in decorating especially cups with pictures of athletes. Another important Siana cup painter was the Heidelberg Painter. He, too, painted almost exclusively Siana cups. His favorite subject was the hero Heracles.
The Heidelberg Painter is the first Attic painter to show him with the Erymanthian boarwith Nereuswith Busiris and in the garden of the Hesperides. The Cassandra Painterwho decorated mid-sized cups with high bases and lips, marks the end of the development of the Siana cup. He is primarily significant as the first known painter to belong to the so-called Little Mastersa large group of painters who produced the same range of vessels, known as Little-master cups.
So-called Merrythought cups were produced contemporaneously with Siana cups. Their handles are in the form of a two-pronged fork and end in what looks like a button. These cups do not have a delineated rim. They also have a deeper bowl with a higher and narrower foot.
Heracles and Ares fight over the corpse of Cycnus, in the lower register an animal frieze, signed by the potter Kolchos, attributed to the painter LydosAttic wine jug, c.
He or his immediate ancestors probably came from Asia Minor but he was undoubtedly trained in Athens. Over surviving vases are now attributed to him.
One of his pictures on a hydria is the first known Attic representation of the fight between Heracles and Geryon.
Lydos was the first to show Heracles with the hide of a lion, which afterward became common in Attic art. Lydos decorated other types of vessels besides hydriai and dinos, such as plates, cups overlap Siena cupscolumn kraters and psykters, as well as votive tablets.
The style is quite homogenous, but the pieces vary considerably in quality.Dating fired-clay ceramics
The drawings are not always carefully produced. He was presumably the last Attic vase painter to put animal friezes on large vases. Still in the Corinthian tradition, his figure drawings are a link in the chain of vase painters extending from Kleitias via Lydos and the Amasis Painters to Exekias.
Along with them he participated in the evolution of this art in Attica and had a lasting influence. These were egg-shaped neck amphora with decorations atypical of the usual Attic design canon of the period. Almost all of the c. The body of the amphora is usually subdivided into several parallel friezes. The upper or shoulder frieze usually shows a popular scene from mythology.
There are sometimes less common subjects, such as a unique scene of the sacrificing of Polyxena. The first known erotic images on Attic vases are also found at this vase location. The painters frequently put annotations on Tyrrhenian amphora which identify the persons shown.
Pottery - Wikipedia
The other two or three friezes were decorated with animals; sometimes one of them was replaced with a plant frieze. The neck is customarily painted with a lotus palmette cross or festoons. The amphoras are quite colorful and recall Corinthian products. In this case a Corinthian form was obviously deliberately copied to produce a particular vase type for the Etruscan market, where the style was popular. It is possible that this form was not manufactured in Athens but somewhere else in Attica, or even outside Attica.
Important painters were the Castellani Painter and the Goltyr Painter. In this period the best and most well-known artists exploited all the possibilities offered by this style. The female maenads are shown here only in outline, without opaque white to characterize them as women. The first important painter of this time was the Amasis Painter — BCnamed after the famous potter Amasiswith whom he primarily worked.
Many researchers regard them as the same person.
He began his painting career at about the same time as Lydos but was active over a period almost twice as long. Whereas Lydos showed more the abilities of a skilled craftsman, the Amasis Painter was an accomplished artist. His images are clever, charming and sophisticated  and his personal artistic development comes close to a reflection of the overall evolution of black-figure Attic vase painting at that time.
His early work shows his affinity to the painters of Siana cups. Advances can be most easily recognized in how he draws the folds of clothing. His early female figures wear clothes without folds. Later he paints flat, angular folds, and in the end he is able to convey the impression of supple, flowing garments. The groups of figures which the Amasis Painter shows were carefully drawn and symmetrically composed.
Initially they were quite static, later figures convey an impression of motion. Although the Amasis Painter often depicted mythological events—he is known for his pig-faced satyrsfor example—he is better known for his scenes of daily life. He was the first painter to portray them to a significant extent. His work decisively influenced the work of red-figure painters later. He possibly anticipated some of their innovations or was influenced by them toward the end of his painting career: Group E — v.
It rigorously broke with the stylistic tradition of Lydos both as to image and vessel. Egg-shaped neck amphoras were completely given up, column kraters almost entirely abandoned. Instead, this group introduced Type A belly amphoras, which then became an index form. Neck amphoras were usually produced only in customized versions.
The group had no interest in small formats. Many scenes, especially those originating in myths, were reproduced again and again. Thus several amphoras of this group show Heracles with Geryon or the Nemean Lionand increasingly Theseus and the Minotauras well as the birth of Athena.
The particular significance of the group is, however, in the influence it exerted on Exekias. Most Attic artists of the period copied the styles of Group E and Exekias. The work of Lydos and the Amasis Painter was, by contrast, not imitated as frequently.
Beazley describes the importance of the group for Exekias as follows: Dionysus reclines on a ship which sprouts grapevines and is surrounded by dolphins, c. He signed 12 of his surviving vessels as potter, two as both painter and potter.
Exekias probably had a large role in the development of Little-master cups and the Type A belly amphora mentioned above, and he possibly invented the calyx krater, at least the oldest existing piece is from his workshop.