Pesticide Update - PDF
and large farms, with up-to-date production and pest management information. . See: ordendelsantosepulcro.info?id= for more. the CDVSFP evaluated 16 beefsteak tomato varieties at Altobelli Family Farms in Kinderhook,. NY. . date so that one can evaluate yields and. USDA NRCS Announces EQIP Signup Dates – Energy Efficiency from the same farm, or $50 per person not enrolled in the CDVSFP.
Doug Rathke cell; Batavia: Growers are encouraged to sample different plantings separately, selecting 10 representative bulbs per planting per sample. Make sure samples are secured against leaking or damage during shipping. Garlic samples should be surrounded in a layer of absorbent material such as paper towel.
Soil should be placed in a Zip-Loc bag and should not be dried before shipping. If you have questions about sampling, please contact your local vegetable specialist for assistance. To send in a sample, fill out the submission form below as completely as possible and mail overnight or first class with your check and your sample.
You should receive results within two weeks. Pack garlic and soil sample separately and avoid exposure to sun and high temperature. Send early in the week by overnight delivery, if possible. Make check payable to Cornell University. Write Garlic Project on the check s memo line. Mail sample and payment to: In a restaurant or convenience store, the cooler has a constant load, the product already arrives pre-cooled and packaged, and the cooler humidity is designed to be as low as possible to keep the product and packaging dry.
In a fruit and vegetable cooler the product arrives at varying temperatures anywhere from 50 o 90 o F and has to be cooled as quickly as possible to retain its moisture and quality. The quicker the product is cooled the longer the shelf life. Also, humidity is kept as high as possible so we don't get product shrinkage or break down. Fruit and vegetable coolers are designed to store specific products. If we have 5, pounds of apples and 5, pounds of sweet corn we may have the same cubic volume and possibly even weight, but sweet corn generates 10 times more heat of respiration than apples so the refrigeration system must be sized accordingly.
Insulation Load - In a fruit or vegetable cooler the majority of our cooling load is the product, pulling field heat out. Adding excessive insulation may be a waste of money because it doesn't change the size of the refrigeration equipment.
The amount of insulation will hit a point of diminishing returns. Using more than you need will cost more than the energy it saves. The insulation load must be calculated for the specific requirements.
If a cooler will be used to store produce during the warm season then more insulation may be needed. MacNeil, CVP A closed cell foam insulation like urethane is best as it does not absorb moisture which would reduce its insulating properties. Infiltration Load - Outside air entering the cooler is the biggest load factor that a person can change: The cooler door is a big factor in refrigerant load.
The size of the door, tightly sealing door gaskets, and strip curtains on the door openings, greatly affect refrigerant load, as does the number of door openings per hour. You could have 3 different compressors of the same H. Defrost Air, Electric, Hot - Gas Air defrost turns the compressor off with a time clock while the evaporator fans run, good for maybe 38 o F and higher temps. Electric defrost has heater elements in the coil to melt frost, and hot gas defrost is a reverse cycle refrigeration system that uses hot refrigerant gas to melt the frost.
To Operate Below 38 o F - Electric defrost has the least expensive up front cost but is the most expensive to operate. Multiple Refrigeration Systems - Having 2 smaller systems in a cooler compared to 1 larger system is more energy efficient.
Also when the cooler reaches temperature, one smaller compressor can handle the load instead of short cycling and starting and stopping a large compressor. This also provides the benefit of redundancy in case of a breakdown. Controls - Use only digital thermostats. They are much more accurate and you can set the differential between on and off. There are several companies in the marketplace that offer control packages to save energy by eliminating defrosts.
They work well on normal walk-in coolers where the load remains constant. In fruit and vegetable coolers, however, the load can change daily. This confuses these energy saving packages and may result in nuisance ice ups and actually cost more to operate.
Outside Air Cooling - We use computer systems to cool with outside air, modulating the amount of cold air that can enter the storage to maintain temperature. They can also be tied into refrigeration systems. When it's warm outside the refrigeration runs and when it's cool outside we cool with outside air automatically within 0. This is the most energy efficient system there is. Arctic installed a cabbage storage where we turn 70 H. This system is used on potato, cabbage, onions, and carrots, as well other crops.
The Program will be repeated on the following dates: Monday, May 14, 7: More information and webinar registration instructions are at: Foodlink, Rochester, NY Partnering with your local food bank is a solution for surplus produce that can benefit both you and your community.
In this service area we partner with agencies that provide service toindividuals in need. If you have a farm in one of these counties and have surplus harvested product, or productive fields that you may not harvest, there are three ways you can partner with Foodlink: Foodlink has trucks in each of these counties at least once a week. We can pick up product and provide you with a receipt for your donation which will allow you to receive a tax deduction.
Foodlink can bring out a team of volunteers to glean unharvested product. We accept all liability and will provide an insurance waiver when we come out to glean. On a per-case basis, Foodlink is interested in paying farmers for the cost of harvest. We can work out a fair price for both parties and send our trucks to the farm to pay for and pick up the product.
For more information, go to Contact: John Baldanza, or x, or Mitch Gruber, or x The funds for these grants are contributed by the growers and processors through the processing contracts. Insecticide use is the most important tactic for thrips control, but this strategy must be used carefully and in a manner that will prevent or slow down the ability of thrips to develop resistance.
This article provides guidance for managing onion thrips infestations in onion fields using insecticides in a manner that will be successful and should minimize the development of resistance. To do so, there are three areas that should be considered before making insecticide applications: A number of products are registered for thrips control on onion in New York, but few work well Table 1. Only four products have consistently demonstrated good to excellent control of onion thrips: Radiant, Entrust, Agri-Mek and Movento.
Entrust is similar to Radiant, but lacks the residual activity that Radiant provides. Agri- Mek provides moderate to excellent control of onion thrips adults and larvae and has a residual activity of days.
The Agri-Mek label states thrips suppression rather than thrips control because this product is mediocre against western flower thrips, which is a serious pest of onion in the western US, but not in New York.
Therefore, Movento should be used early when it easily moves systemically throughout the plant and when adult populations are often lower than they are later in the season. You must have a Section 18 label before applying Movento. Are Penetrating Surfactants Important? Radiant, Agri-Mek and Movento must penetrate the leaves to maximize effectiveness against thrips. Therefore, a penetrating surfactant must be included in the spray tank.
There are many types of penetrating surfactants, and research in NY in showed that these insecticides performed equally well against thrips when either the non-ionic surfactant Induce, the methlyated seed oil MSO or the organosilicone surfactant Silwet L was added to the spray mixture. A penetrating surfactant is very different from a spreader-sticker!
Inthrips control was evaluated using Movento with varying rates of Induce. The level of thrips control significantly increased as the rate of Induce increased, with the best control being achieved with the 0. Mean number of onion thrips larvae per plant in plots treated with Movento and various rates of Induce.
Two years ago, we noticed a drop in thrips control when Agri-Mek and Movento were tank mixed with a fungicide that included a spreader sticker e. We were concerned that the spreader sticker used to aid in leaf disease control interfered with the insecticide s ability to penetrate the leaf surface. While spraying these insecticides separately from fungicides would eliminate this problem, it also would be a more costly and less efficient approach to managing thrips and foliar diseases.
Therefore, studies were carried out in to understand how various combinations of insecticides, penetrators, fungicides and spreader stickers affected the level of thrips and foliar disease control. In a similar trial inthe efficacy of Agri-Mek SC and Movento were evaluated when tank mixed with other fungicides to determine if the reduction in efficacy observed with tank mixes of Chloronil occurred with other fungicides.
In addition to the insecticide x fungicide mixtures, half of the treatments included 0. Two applications were made one week apart and the numbers of thrips larvae were recorded one week after each spray. The total number of thrips in the untreated control over the two sampling dates was very high, exceeding 1, larvae per plant in the untreated control over larvae per leaf; data not shown.
When averaged across all fungicide and penetrating surfactant treatments, Agri-Mek and Movento provided an equivalent level of thrips control Fig. The total number of onion thrips larvae per plant in plots that did not include Induce was significantly higher than the number in plots that included Induce, indicating the importance of using a penetrating surfactant with Agri-Mek and Movento for controlling thrips Fig.
When all Movento and Agri-Mek treatments were averaged with and without Inducethe mean cumulative number of thrips larvae in the Chloronil treatment was significantly greater than the untreated control and all other fungicide treatments Fig. No significant differences existed among the other fungicide treatments. Our results indicated that Chloronil interfered with the ability of Movento and Agri-Mek to control thrips.
However, in 3 of 4 trials, we learned that adding a penetrating surfactant high rate to the Chloronil and insecticide mixture restored the high level of thrips control provided by the insecticide.
Insecticide resistance in thrips populations is a major concern. Resistance in thrips populations to the pyrethroid Warrior has been documented in many New York onion fields. Resistance in thrips to organophosphates and carbamates may be common throughout New York.
Caution should be taken when using products in these three classes. If you see that you are not getting the control you should and think resistance may be the cause, contact your CCE educator. Because only a few highly effective products are available for thrips control and insecticide resistance is a concern, targeting the same generation of thrips with one product is suggested.
Based on past studies, two applications Figure 2. Total number of onion thrips. Onion fields should be scouted for onion thrips each time before a decision is made to spray the field.
In many cases, infestations will begin along an edge or edges of the field. When this occurs, many thrips may be seen along edges and many fewer or none in other parts of the field. If possible, only spray the infested edges rather than the entire field. Otherwise, wait to spray the entire field when the average number of thrips sampled throughout the entire field Continued on page 16 Volume 8, Issue 5 Page 15 16 Continued from page 15 reaches a threshold see more below.
When weather is hot and dry, thrips populations can build rapidly and thresholds can be reached very quickly. In this case, scouting may need to occur more frequently.
In contrast, if weather is cool and wet, weeks may go by before the thrips population increases to the threshold. Timing insecticide applications following an action threshold can be challenging because of weather events e. However, using an action threshold to determine when to spray can save money and time and keep resistance from developing as quickly.
Based on results from field studies fromwe found that the utility of an action threshold is highly dependent on the efficacy of the product used Table 2. Basically, Radiant has such good activity against onion thrips that it can control a population even when it has been allowed to build to a relatively high level.
In contrast, Movento, Lannate LV and often Agri-Mek need to be applied using a more conservative threshold only 1 thrips larva per leaf to manage the population. Action thresholds for selected insecticides suggested for managing onion thrips on onion. Sequences and products selected for these examples are based on experience from several small-plot onion research trials.
Onion thrips infestations typically occur in onion fields in downstate NY before upstate NY because temperatures are warmer earlier in the season in downstate NY. The treatment window for onion thrips varies considerably among fields because the period between thrips colonization and harvest varies considerably. In most cases, transplanted fields will need to be sprayed earlier and for a shorter period compared with direct-seeded fields. For transplanted fields, action thresholds for thrips control are often reached in early to mid-june and protection is needed for about 4 to 6 weeks.
For direct-seeded fields, action thresholds are often reached in late June to early July and protection is needed for 6 to 8 weeks. Do not use Movento if onion thrips adults have recently migrated into the field from nearby alfalfa or small grains because Movento is very weak against adults. Agri-Mek has a day pre -harvest interval, so this product should be used during the first half of the season.
Radiant is the most effective product against larvae and adults, so it is positioned at the end of the insecticide use sequence when thrips populations are highest. Sequence of insecticides to apply for onion thrips control in transplanted onion fields.
Two applications of each product should be applied based on action thresholds. If after using Movento and Agri-Mek first four sprays there are at least 4 weeks remaining before onions are pulled, consider inserting two applications of Lannate between the Agri-Mek and Radiant sprays see direct seeded onions below.
Conversely, if after using Movento there are only 2 to 3 weeks remaining before onions are pulled, eliminate the Agri-Mek sprays and go to Radiant. Based on insecticide resistance management principles, the second application would affect the next generation of thrips and this should be avoided if possible.
2012 Pesticide Update
The recommendation would be to continue the sequence with the next product, which would be Agri-Mek or Radiant. Insecticides that belong to the same insecticide class or have the same mode of action used sequentially against some insect pests can accelerate the development of insecticide resistance.
The Colorado potato beetle is notorious rapid increases in insecticide resistance and rotation of insecticide classes has extended the life of products used to manage it. Obviously, we want to avoid insecticide resistance development in onion thrips populations.
Events on February 10 - 16, - Cornell
Additionally, for each product Radiant, Agri-Mek and Moventoonly two applications should be applied during the season and they must be applied consecutively. Page 16 Veg Edge 17 Table 4.
Sequence of insecticides to apply for onion thrips control in directseeded onion fields. If control of thrips using Movento and Agri-Mek first four sprays has provided control up to 2 or 3 weeks before onions will be pulled, eliminate the Lannate applications and go to Radiant.
Additional Thoughts on Controlling Thrips. Insecticides should be applied with ground rigs using moderate pressure and a high volume of water and proper nozzle types and spacing. The goal should be to cover as much of the onion canopy as possible. Research at Cornell showed that applications made using at least 40 gpa, 40 psi and twin -flat fan nozzles achieved excellent coverage and also should minimize drift.
Other ways of controlling thrips besides using insecticides are being studied. Our research team has shown that thrips populations can build on early season volunteers and that some of these volunteers may be infected with Iris yellow spot virus, so removing volunteers as early as possible should be part of an overall management strategy. Our team also has shown that reducing the amount of nitrogen at planting will reduce populations of onion thrips larvae during the season.
Reducing the amount of nitrogen applied to onion fields will save money and potentially may reduce the percentage of bacterial rot problems in storage. Additionally, we have shown a difference among onion cultivars in their susceptibility to thrips feeding. Cultivars that have a yellow-green leaf color and lower levels of wax were less susceptible to thrips feeding compared with blue-green color foliage with higher levels of wax.
While additional work needs to be done on these alternative management practices, experimenting with other ways of reducing thrips infestations will be important to preserve the very few effective insecticides.
Following storage insome New York onions seemed to be affected by a new bacterial disease. The problem turned out to be center rot, caused by the bacterium Pantoea ananatis. Later, symptoms of center rot were found in fields of onions growing in several New York muck-land areas, where most onions are grown in New York.
Also, onion growers and other industry officials in New York reported that bacterial problems were becoming more severe, and no effective means were available to reduce losses consistently. These factors instigated further investigations of bacterial disease problems of onion in New York by the authors. During andwe found several other bacteria infecting onions that were not previously recognized in New York.
Further, we found that muck-soil may be an important source of overwintering inoculum for several of the bacterial diseases. In addition, we made progress in developing techniques useful for evaluation of potential controls, and pilot studies suggested that further study of some new control strategies was warranted.
If the results of further studies prove promising, these strategies may be worthy of adoption by New York onion growers. In this article, we review briefly some of our recent field and laboratory research. Bacteria Associated with Cull Onions: Although sour skin, caused by Burkholderia cepacia, and center rot, caused by Pantoea ananatis, have been identified, more than just these two pathogens were likely to be responsible for the unmarketable bulbs that growers cull out during grading following storage.
The critical question became, which bacterial pathogens were responsible for the tremendous losses that growers sustain after storing onions in New York? To answer the question, we needed to identify the bacterial pathogens responsible for the losses. This was important because: The key to control or management of plant disease is to interfere with the disease cycle, so details of the cycle should be known.
Continued on page 18 Volume 8, Issue 5 Page 17 18 Continued from page 18 That s a tall order for bacterial disease of onions given our present state of knowledge; however, we are committed to learning more through research. Thus, with the cooperation of several onion growers in Central and Western New York, we analyzed hundreds of unmarketable onions that grower-packers had graded out because of suspected bacterial decay. We characterized symptoms of each bisected bulb, and then attempted to isolate bacteria from each cull onion.
Once purified, colonies of the isolated bacteria were identified using traditional microbiological and biochemical tests. The suspected pathogens Burkholderia cepacia and Pantoea ananatis were tentatively identified often using these tests.
However, we isolated many other bacteria and tried to identify them and determine their capability to cause rot in onions.
Using molecular and genetic techniques, we identified many bacteria including Pantoea ananatis, P.
- February 10 - 16, 2014
- Project Overview
To the best of our knowledge, Rahnella spp. Additionally, several microbes isolated from cull onions appeared to be yeasts and other similar microorganisms. Further studies are needed to determine whether the microbes we isolated from the culls including various bacteria and yeasts are pathogens of onions.
They may in fact be primary pathogens that cause disease, or they may be secondary organisms that colonize partially decayed onions and crowd out the primary pathogen such that when we attempt isolation, we succeed in isolating the secondary organism, rather than the primary pathogen.
To determine the pathogenic potential of the isolated microbes, we are testing microbes by introducing them into several types of onion tissues including leaves, slices, sets and seemingly healthy mature bulbs. Page 18 The following table summarizes the data on the bacteria isolated from the eight lots of cull onions assayed in onions grown in Note that generally many different bacteria were isolated from each lot of culls.
However, some bacteria, like Burkholderia sp. One thing is quite clear: That does not mean that the isolated bacteria were, in fact, responsible for the decayed conditions of the bulbs.
Strains of Burkholderia spp. Strains of Rahnella sp. Although strains of Pseudomonas spp. The percent of cull onions from which specific bacteria were isolated from eight lots of cull onions grown in and graded in in Central and Western NY. Pathogenic Ability of Microbes Isolated from Onions: To determine the relevance of these bacteria to decay, we attempted to determine whether the isolated strains could cause decay following inoculation into putatively healthy onion tissues.
We used onion slices, mature bulbs and onion sets in the laboratory and sprouted onion bulbs and young transplants growing in the lab, greenhouse and controlled environment chambers. Strains of Pantoea ananatis, Pantoea agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia and Enterobacter cloacae caused symptoms in inoculated whole onion bulbs or sets. Incubation temperature following inoculation affected the results in a differential manner with respect to the bacteria introduced.
Only strains of Burkholderia cepacia exhibited characteristic symptoms within two days of inoculating slices of large bulbs incubated in Petri dishes. Only some strains of P. The yeast-like microbes isolated from the culls have not been tested sufficiently to determine their pathogenic capability to onions, but pathogenic yeasts are known. Sources of Bacterial Pathogens of Onions: Inwe conducted limited tests of materials destined for planting in New York onion fields.
We had attempted to isolate bacterial pathogens from several lots of onion seed and transplants and from several lots of muck-land soil. Very few of the samples tested yielded known pathogens of onions, a perplexing result.
Because our testing in was rather limited, we expanded testing in We also increased our attention to muck-land soils by assessing a greater number of samples and modifying our assay procedures. Soils were collected within a few weeks of onion planting before we might expect bacterial multiplication to occur in the plants. The seed, transplant and soil samples assessed were derived from the same onion plots that were included in the Northeast IPM program Veg Edge 19 study aimed at identifying management factors related positively or negatively to the incidence of bacterial decay.
As invery few of the samples of seed and transplants yielded bacteria pathogenic to onion. Fifty additional vegetable growers will attend workshops and on-farm meetings and by the end of the project, 20 of these growers will grow sweet potatoes, increasing the total acreage of sweet potatoes in NY to more than Of these growers, we will identify two growers that will produce their own slips for sweet potato production on their farm.
Through the use of on-farm research trials, we will evaluate the use of the following techniques to improve the earliness, yield and overall tuber quality of sweet potatoes: Outreach and education will include the development of a bulletin incorporating the best management practices identified in this research to be shared with interested growers; presentations at local and statewide vegetable meetings.
Results will be included in Extension newsletters and other trade publications. The project will be evaluated by conducting initial face to face interviews with grower cooperators to determine their current sweet potato production techniques.
We will also survey growers attending workshops to determine if sweet potatoes have been added to crop list and techniques they are using to grow them. Performance targets from proposal: Completed February 15, Completed December 31,