Cosmogenic Testing of Puma Punku - Graham Hancock Official Website
Pumapunku or Puma Punku is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, in western Bolivia. It is believed to date to AD and later. . The blocks were fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar. One common engineering. ancient mystery stone walls at Tiwanaku Puma Punku «UFO-Contact News. Kathyrn Dawson .. Punku near Tiahuanaco. Ancient ruins pre-dating the Inca. 2/ Cosmogenic testing of ancient stone from Puma Punku in Bolivia: http://www. ordendelsantosepulcro.info
Half is in Peru and half is in Bolivia, and right on the border sits Lake Titicaca. It's in a vast region of the Andes Mountains called the Altiplano, or "high plain", the largest such plain outside of the Himalayas.
Pumapunku - Wikipedia
The Tiwanaku Culture predated the Inca, and their history is known largely from archaeology, since they had no written language that we know of. The earliest evidence of habitation dates from around BC, but it wasn't until about AD that the Tiwanaku Culture truly developed. At its peak,people lived in and around the Tiwanaku site, centering around Pumapunku and other important structures.
Trade and farming flourished. Farming was done on raised fields with irrigation systems in between them. Decades of drought struck around AD, and the city of Tiwanaku was abandoned, and its people and culture dissolved into the surrounding mountains. Five centuries later, the Inca Culture developed.
So within the context of Tiwanaku, Pumapunku does not leap out as extraordinary. However it does differ from the other structures at Tiwanaku, in that many of the blocks are shaped into highly complex geometries.
There is a row of H-shaped blocks, for example, that have approximately 80 faces on them; and all match each other with great precision.
Pumapunku's stones suggest prefabrication, which is not found at the other Tiwanaku sites. In addition, some of the stones were held together with copper fasteners, some of which were cold hammered into shape, and others that were poured into place molten. Due to the complexity and regularity of many of Pumapunku's stone forms, a number of authors have suggested that they're not stones at all, but rather concrete that was cast into forms.
We don't have any record that such technology was known to pre-Incan cultures, but that doesn't prove it wasn't. What can be proven, and proven quite easily, is that there is no concrete at Pumapunku or anywhere else in Tiwanaku. Contrary to the suppositions of paranormalists, modern geologists are, in fact, quite able to discern rock from concrete.
Petrographic and chemical analyses are relatively trivial to carry out, and even allowed us to determine exactly where the rocks were quarried.
Pumapunku's large blocks are a common red sandstone that was quarried about 10 kilometers away.
Many of the smaller stones, including the most ornamental and some of the facing stones, are of igneous andesite and came from a quarry on the shore of Lake Titicaca, about 90 kilometers away. These smaller stones may have been brought across the lake by reed boat, then dragged overland the remaining 10 kilometers.
Much is often made of the vast size and weight of the Pumapunku stones, with paranormal websites routinely listing them as up to tons. The accepted estimate of this piece of red sandstone's weight is metric tons, equal to US tons.
Review of Ancient Aliens S04E The Mysteries of Puma Punku - Jason Colavito
The second largest block is only 85 metric tons, and the rest go down sharply from there. The vast majority of the building material at Pumapunku consists of relatively small and easily handled stones, although many of the most famous are megalithic. The absurd numbers like tons come from much earlier estimates, and have long since been corrected.
We do not claim to know how the heavy lifting and exquisite masonry was accomplished at Pumapunku, but that's a far cry from saying we believe the Tiwanaku were incapable of it. We simply don't have a record of what tools and techniques they used.
All around the world are examples of stonemasonry from the period that is equally impressive. The Greek Parthenon, for example, was built a thousand years before Pumapunku, and yet nobody invokes aliens as the only explanation for its great beauty and decorative detailing that more than rivals Pumapunku's angles and cuts.
At about the same time, the Persians constructed Persepolis with its superlative Palace of Darius, featuring details that are highly comparable to Pumapunku. Stonemasons in India cut the Udayagiri Caves with megalithic doorways that are very similar to those in Pumapunku. The Tiwanaku did magnificent work, but by no means was it inexplicably superior to what can be found throughout the ancient world.
It is unnecessary to invoke aliens to explain the structures. Curiously, if you do an Internet search for Pumapunku, you'll find it almost universally, and quite casually, referred to as a "port". At least, this is what it's called on the paranormal web pages, which make up the overwhelming bulk of Pumapunku information on the Internet.
In fact, it's not a port, and it never was a port. To anyone doing even the most basic research or visiting the area, it's a fairly bizarre assertion, considering that Pumapunku was in the middle of a vast farming nation ofpeople.
Age[ edit ] Researchers have worked to determine the age of the Pumapunku complex since the discovery of the Tiwanaku site. As noted by Andean specialist, W. Isbell, professor at Binghamton University a radiocarbon date was obtained by Vranich  from organic material from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill forming the Pumapunku.
Since the radiocarbon date came from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the andesite and sandstone stonework, the stonework must have been constructed sometime after AD — The excavation trenches of Vranich show that the clay, sand, and gravel fill of the Pumapunku complex lie directly on the sterile middle Pleistocene sediments. These excavation trenches also demonstrated the lack of any pre-Andean Middle Horizon cultural deposits within the area of the Tiwanaku Site adjacent to the Pumapunku complex.
The second largest stone block found within the Pumapunku is 7. Its weight has been estimated to be Smaller andesite blocks that were used for stone facing and carvings came from quarries within the Copacabana Peninsula about 90 kilometres 56 miles away from and across Lake Titicaca from the Pumapunku and the rest of the Tiwanaku Site. Several theories have been proposed as to how this labor force transported the stones, although these theories remain speculative.
Two of the more common proposals involve the use of llama skin ropes and the use of ramps and inclined planes. The blocks were fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar.
The Non-Mystery of Pumapunku
One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle. However, the blocks do not have the same dimensions, although they are close. They were initially pounded by stone hammers, which can still be found in numbers on local andesite quarries, creating depressions, and then slowly ground and polished with flat stones and sand.
Demonstration of the building block technique Demonstration of the building block technique Puma Punku was a large earthen platform mound with three levels of stone retaining walls.