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Culture of Sudan - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family Sa-Th. north and the south have a history of animosity that dates to independence. The town has a hospital, a day school, and a new university. The Romani ethnic group have unique customs, spiritual beliefs and cultural traditions. The Roma are an ethnic people who have migrated across Europe for a . Though during the courtship phase, girls are encouraged to dress employment, health and housing, as well as core issues of poverty. Culture of Spain - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, that covers much of the Spanish meseta and the marriage of whose future queen, The state offers social security, extensive health care, and disability benefits to.
Pastries such like koeksisters and desserts like melktert milk tart are also universally popular. Indian food like curry is also popular, especially in Durban with its large Indian population.
Another local Indian Durban speciality is the 'bunny' or bunny chowwhich consists of a hollowed-out loaf of white bread filled with curry. The Portuguese community has also made its mark, with spicy peri-peri chicken being a favourite. South African wine South Africa has developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around StellenboschFranschhoekPaarl and Barrydale.
South African wine has a history dating back toand at one time Constantia was considered one of the greatest wines in the world. Being respectful of personal and cultural boundaries, and encouraging your colleagues to do the same through your example, will make your workplace more welcoming and productive for everyone.
Observe diverse traditions, celebrations, and holidays from other cultures Diversity and inclusion activities can take many forms, but one of the easiest and most fun can be creating a culturally diverse holiday calendar. Encourage your colleagues to get involved and find appropriate ways celebrate different traditions. From Eid to Oktoberfest, sharing food, music, and celebrations from around the world can be wonderful for team-building and a great way for colleagues at different levels of the organization to connect.
Well-wishes via email or over a coffee can be a small gesture that means a lot to a colleague, especially if they are far from home. For example, avoid scheduling client lunches during a time of fasting or holding meetings during a time of prayer. Contribute to the cultural diversity of your own workplace Remember, diversity can take many forms. Whatever your background, your unique perspective, culture, and experiences can enrich the professional experience of those around you.
Set an example for others to follow by positively contributing to your company culture. Something as small as sharing a traditional treat from home can be a wonderful way to spark a conversation and inspire others to share too. The best way to promote diversity in your workplace is by embracing it and working to build an understanding.
Getting to know your colleagues on a personal level, regardless of their culture and background, will help you to find common ground, deepen your appreciation of differences, and promote an inclusive and welcoming work environment.
The southern region includes grasslands, and along the border with Uganda the Democratic Republic of the Congo, dense forests. The southern part of the country consists of a basin drained by the Nile, as well as a plateau, and mountains, which mark the southern border. These include Mount Kinyeti, the highest peak in Sudan. Rainfall is extremely rare in the north but profuse in the south, which has a wet season lasting six to nine months. The central region of the country generally gets enough rain to support agriculture, but it experienced droughts in the s and s.
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The country supports a variety of wildlife, including crocodiles and hippopotamuses in the rivers, elephants mainly in the southgiraffes, lions, leopards, tropical birds, and several species of poisonous reptiles. The capital, Khartoum, lies at the meeting point of the White and Blue Niles, and together with Khartoum North and Omdurman forms an urban center known as "the three towns," with a combined population of 2.
Khartoum is the center for commerce and government; Omdurman is the official capital; and North Khartoum is the industrial center, home to 70 percent of Sudan's industry. Sudan has a population of Fifty-two percent of the population are black and 39 percent are Arab. Six percent are Beja, 2 percent are foreign, and the remaining 1 percent are composed of other ethnicities.
There are more than fifty different tribes. Despite a devastating civil war and a number of natural disasters, the population has an average growth rate of 3 percent.
There is also a steady rural-urban migration. There are more than one hundred different indigenous languages spoken in Sudan, including Nubian, Ta Bedawie, and dialects of Nilotic and Nilo-Hamitic languages.
Arabic is the official language, spoken by more than half of the population. English is being phased out as a foreign language taught in the schools, although it is still spoken by some people.
The flag adopted at independence had three horizontal stripes: This flag was replaced in with one more explicitly Islamic in its symbolism. It consists of three horizontal stripes: It has a green triangle at the left border, which symbolizes both agriculture and the Islamic faith.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.
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The first known civilization to inhabit the region of present-day Sudan were the Meroitic people, who lived in the area between the Atbara and Nile Rivers from B. At about this time, three Christian kingdoms—Nobatia, Makurra, and Alwa—came into power in the area.
Several hundred years later, inthe Arabs arrived, bringing the Islamic faith with them. They signed a treaty with the Christians to coexist in peace, but throughout the next seven centuries, Christianity gradually died out as more Arabs immigrated to the area and gained converts. In the Funj people arrived, initiating a rule that would last for nearly three centuries.
This was known as the Black Sultanate.
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Little is known about the origins of the Funj; it is speculated that perhaps they were part of the Shilluk or some other southern tribe that migrated north.
Funj rulers converted to Islam, and their dynasty saw the spread of the religion throughout the area. During the s, the slave trade became a growing business in the region. There had long been a system of domestic slavery, but in the nineteenth century, the Egyptians began taking Sudanese slaves to work as soldiers.
Also, European and Arab traders who came to the area looking for ivory established a slave-trade market. This tore apart tribal and family structures and almost entirely eliminated several of the weaker tribes. It was not until the twentieth century that the slave trade was finally abolished.
InEgypt, at the time part of the Ottoman Empire, invaded the Sudan, and ruled for sixty years until the Sudanese leader Muhammad Ahmed, known as the Mahdi, or "promised one," took over in When the British took control of Egypt inthey were wary of the Mahdi's increasing power.
In the Battle of Shaykan infollowers of the Sudanese leader defeated the Egyptians and their British supporting troops. In the Mahdi's troops defeated the Egyptians and the British in the city of Khartoum.
The Mahdi died in and was succeeded by Khalifa Abdullahi. Their control of the area would last until In the British adopted a policy of indirect rule in which tribal leaders were invested with the responsibility of local administration and tax collection. This allowed the British to ensure their dominion over the region as a whole, by preventing the rise of a national figure and limiting the power of educated urban Sudanese. Throughout the s an independence movement in the country gained momentum.
The Graduates' Congress was formed, a body representing all Sudanese with more than a primary education and whose goal was an independent Sudan. In the British-Egyptian rulers agreed to sign a three-year preparation for independence, and on 1 January Sudan officially became independent. Over the next two years the government changed hands several times, and the economy floundered after two poor cotton harvests. Additionally, rancor in the south grew; the region resented its under representation in the new government.
Of eight hundred positions, only six were held by southerners. Rebels organized a guerrilla army called the Anya Nya, meaning "snake venom. During his reign, opposition grew, and the outlawed political parties joined to form the United Front. This group, along with the Professional Front, composed of doctors, teachers, and lawyers, forced Abboud to resign in His regime was replaced by a parliamentary system, but this government was poorly organized, and weakened by the ongoing civil war in the south.
In May the military again took control, this time under Jaafar Nimeiri. Throughout the s, Sudan's economy grew, thanks to agricultural projects, new roads, and an oil pipeline, but foreign debts also mounted. The following decade saw a decline in Sudan's economic situation when the droughts and wars in Chad and Ethiopia sent thousands of refugees into the country, taxing the nation's already scarce resources.
Nimeiri was originally open to negotiating with southern rebels, and in the Addis Ababa Peace Agreement declared the Southern Region a separate entity.
However, in he revoked that independence, and instituted new laws based on severe interpretations of the Islamic code. The RCC immediately declared a state of emergency.
They did away with the National Assembly, banned political parties, trade unions, and newspapers, and forbade strikes, demonstrations, and all other public gatherings. These measures prompted the United Nations to pass a resolution in expressing concern over human rights violations. The following year, the military government was disbanded, but General Bashir remained in power as Sudan's president.
Internal conflict between the north and the south continued, and in the government initiated an offensive by cutting off relief to the south from Kenya and Uganda, causing thousands of Sudanese to flee the country.
A peace treaty between the government and two rebel groups in the south was signed inbut fighting continued. In peace talks, the government agreed to an internationally supervised vote for self-rule in the south, but a date was not specified, and the talks did not result in a cease-fire. In the country held its first elections in seven years. President Bashir won, but his victory was protested by opposition groups. In a new constitution was introduced, that allowed for a multiparty system and freedom of religion.
However, when the National Assembly began to reduce the power of the president, Bashir declared a state of emergency, and rights were again revoked. Sudanese tend to identify with their tribes rather than their nation. The country's borders do not follow the geographical divisions of its various tribes, which in many cases spill over into neighboring countries.
Since independence, Muslims in the north have attempted to forge a national Sudanese identity based on Arabic culture and language, at the expense of southern cultures. This has angered many southerners and has proved more divisive than unifying. Within the south, however, the common fight against the north has served to bring together a number of different tribes. More than one hundred of Sudan's tribes coexist peacefully. However, relations between the north and the south have a history of animosity that dates to independence.
The north is largely Arab, and the south has resented their movement to "Arabize" the country, replacing indigenous languages and culture with Arabic. This conflict has led to bloodshed and an ongoing civil war. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Only 25 percent of the population live in cities or towns; the remaining 75 percent are rural. Khartoum boasts beautiful, tree-lined streets and gardens.
It is also home to a large number of immigrants from rural areas, who come looking for work and who have erected shantytowns on the city's fringes. It has wide, dusty streets and is surrounded by expanses of grassland. The town has a hospital, a day school, and a new university.
Other cities include Kassala, the country's largest market town, in the east; Nyala, in the west; Port Sudan, through which most international trade passes; Atbara, in the north; and Wad Medani in the central region, where the independence movement originated. Architecture is varied, and reflects regional climatic and cultural differences. In the northern desert regions, houses are thick-walled mud structures with flat roofs and elaborately decorated doorways reflecting Arabic influence.
In much of the country, houses are made of baked bricks and are surrounded by courtyards. In the south, typical houses are round straw huts with conical roofs, called ghotiya. Nomads, who live throughout Sudan, sleep in tents. The style and material of the tents vary, depending on the tribe; the Rashiaida, for example, use goat hair, whereas the Hadendowa weave their homes from palm fiber. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life.
The day usually begins with a cup of tea. Breakfast is eaten in the mid- to late morning, generally consisting of beans, salad, liver, and bread. Millet is the staple food, and is prepared as a porridge called asida or a flat bread called kisra.
Vegetables are prepared in stews or salads. Ful, a dish of broad beans cooked in oil, is common, as are cassavas and sweet potatoes.
Nomads in the north rely on dairy products and meat from camels. In general, meat is expensive and not often consumed.
Sheep are killed for feasts or to honor a special guest. The intestines, lungs, and liver of the animal are prepared with chili pepper in a special dish called marara. Cooking is done in the courtyards outside the house on a tin grill called a kanoon, which uses charcoal as fuel. Tea and coffee are both popular drinks. Coffee beans are fried, then ground with cloves and spices. The liquid is strained through a grass sieve and served in tiny cups.
A Rasheida resident employs a worker to mud-plaster his house.
These mud structures are common in the northern region of the Sudan. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. At the Eid al-Adha, the Feast of the Great Sacrifice, it is customary to kill a sheep, and to give part of the meat to people who cannot afford it themselves.
The Eid al-Fitr, or Breaking of the Ramadan Fast, is another joyous occasion, and involves a large family meal. The birthday of the Prophet Muhammad is primarily a children's holiday, celebrated with special desserts: Sudan is one of the twenty-five poorest countries in the world. It has been afflicted by drought and famine and by staggering foreign debt, which nearly caused the country to be expelled from the International Monetary Fund in Eighty percent of the labor force works in agriculture.
Yields have suffered in recent years from decreased rainfall, desertification, and lack of sufficient irrigation systems; currently only 10 percent of arable land is cultivated. Major crops include millet, groundnuts, sesame seed, corn, wheat, and fruits dates, mangoes, guavas, bananas, and citrus. In areas not conducive to farming, people many of them nomads support themselves by raising cattle, sheep, goats, or camels.
Ten percent of the labor force is employed in industry and commerce, and 6 percent in the government. There is a shortage of skilled workers, many of whom emigrate to find better work elsewhere. There also is a 30 percent unemployment rate.